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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from__________to__________                            

Commission File No. 001-38220

https://cdn.kscope.io/1cf08e91b77ddb8d99205a04f13bb589-angi-20201231_g1.jpg
ANGI HOMESERVICES INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware82-1204801
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
3601 Walnut Street, Denver, CO 80205
(Address of registrant's principal executive offices)
(303963-7200
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class 
Trading Symbol
Name of exchange on which registered 
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.001ANGIThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting
 company
Emerging growth
company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No 
As of January 29, 2021, the following shares of the Registrant's Common Stock were outstanding:
Class A Common Stock78,192,070 
Class B Common Stock421,861,990 
Class C Common Stock 
Total outstanding Common Stock500,054,060 
The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2020 was $891,291,134. For the purpose of the foregoing calculation only, all directors and executive officers of the Registrant are assumed to be affiliates of the Registrant.


Table of Contents

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the Registrant's proxy statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III herein.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
Number

3

Table of Contents
PART I
Item 1.    Business
OVERVIEW
Who We Are
ANGI Homeservices Inc. connects quality home service professionals across 500 different categories, from repairing and remodeling to cleaning and landscaping, with consumers. Over 240,000 domestic service professionals actively sought consumer matches, completed jobs or advertised work through ANGI Homeservices’ platforms and consumers turned to at least one of our brands to find a professional for approximately 32 million projects during the year ended December 31, 2020. ANGI Homeservices has established category-transforming products with brands such as HomeAdvisor, Angie’s List, and Handy.
The Company has two operating segments: (i) North America (United States and Canada), which primarily includes the operations of HomeAdvisor, Angie’s List, Handy, and HomeStars, and (ii) Europe, which includes the operations of Travaux, MyHammer, MyBuilder, Werkspot and Instapro.
As used herein, “ANGI Homeservices,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” and similar terms refer to ANGI Homeservices Inc. and its subsidiaries (unless the context requires otherwise).
History
We have been incorporated in the State of Delaware since 2017 and operate under the name ANGI Homeservices Inc. We are a publicly traded holding company that was formed to facilitate the combination of IAC/InterActiveCorp’s (“IAC”) HomeAdvisor business and Angie’s List, Inc. (the “Combination”), which was completed on September 29, 2017.
We acquired Handy Technologies, Inc. (“Handy”), a leading platform in the United States for connecting individuals looking for household services (primarily cleaning and handyman services) with top-quality, pre-screened independent service professionals, on October 19, 2018. Prior to its sale on December 31, 2018, we also operated Felix, a pay-per-call advertising service business, which was included in our North America segment. ANGI also owns and operates Fixd Repair, a home warranty and service company, mHelpDesk, a provider of cloud-based field service software for small to mid-size businesses, and CraftJack, a third-party lead generation service that connects home service professionals with consumers looking to complete home projects.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR BUSINESSES
Marketplace
Overview
The HomeAdvisor digital marketplace service (“HomeAdvisor”) connects consumers with service professionals nationwide for home repair, maintenance and improvement projects. HomeAdvisor provides consumers with tools and resources to help them find local, pre-screened and customer-rated service professionals, as well as instantly book appointments online. HomeAdvisor also connects consumers with service professionals instantly by telephone, as well as offers several home services-related resources, such as cost guides for different types of home services projects. Handy connects consumers looking for household services (primarily cleaning and handyman services) with top-quality, pre-screened independent service professionals. Consumers request and pay for household services directly through the Handy platform and Handy fulfills the request through the use of independently established home services providers engaged in a trade, occupation and/or business that customarily provides such services. Together, we refer to the HomeAdvisor and Handy businesses in the United States as the “Marketplace.” All Marketplace matching and pre-priced booking services and related tools and directories are provided to consumers free of charge.
As of December 31, 2020, the Marketplace had a network of approximately 208,000 transacting service professionals, each of whom paid for consumer matches and/or performed a job sourced or booked through HomeAdvisor and/or Handy. Collectively, this service professional network provided services in more than 500 categories, ranging from cleaning and installation services to simple home repairs and larger home remodeling projects, and 400 discrete geographic areas in the United States. The Marketplace generated approximately 32 million service requests during the year ended December 31, 2020. Service requests consist of fully completed domestic service requests submitted to HomeAdvisor and completed jobs sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms.
Consumer Services
Consumers can submit a request to be matched with a Marketplace service professional through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms, as well as through certain paths on the Angie’s List, Inc. (“Angie’s List”) platform and various third-party
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affiliate platforms. Depending on the nature of the service request and the path through which it was submitted, consumers are generally matched with up to four HomeAdvisor service professionals, a Handy service professional or a combination of HomeAdvisor service professionals and service professionals from the Angie’s List nationwide directory (as and if available for the given service request).
Matches made through HomeAdvisor platforms and paths and various third-party affiliate platforms are made by way of HomeAdvisor’s proprietary algorithm, based on several factors (including the type of services desired, location and the number of service professionals available to fulfill the request). Matches made through Handy platforms and paths are based on the type of service desired, location and the date and time the consumer wants the service to be provided.
In all cases, service professionals may contact consumers with whom they have been matched directly and consumers can generally review profiles, ratings and reviews of presented service professionals and select the service professional whom they believe best meets their specific needs. Consumers are under no obligation to work with any service professional(s) referred by or found through any of our branded or third-party affiliate platforms.
For matches described above, in the case of HomeAdvisor service professionals, consumers are responsible for booking the service and paying the service professional directly either separately or via the HomeAdvisor Pro-Pay App. Our mobile payments platform on our app allows consumers to pay service professionals directly through our mobile app. In 2020, we expanded our mobile payment platform with the launch of a financing payment option, administered by a third party, to provide consumers a convenient, contactless alternative to pay for any home improvement job, no matter the project type or size. In the case of Handy service professionals, consumers request services and pay for such services directly through the Handy platform and then Handy fulfills the request with independently established home services providers engaged in a trade, occupation and/or business that customarily provides such services.
In addition to the general matching services described above, HomeAdvisor also provides several on-demand services, including Instant Booking and Instant Connect. Also, in the case of certain tasks, HomeAdvisor provides a pre-priced booking service, pursuant to which consumers can request services through a HomeAdvisor platform and pay HomeAdvisor for the services directly. HomeAdvisor then fulfills the request with independently established home services providers engaged in a trade, occupation and/or business that customarily provides such services. Lastly, consumers can also access the online HomeAdvisor True Cost Guide, which provides project cost information for more than 400 project types nationwide, as well as a library of home services-related content consisting primarily of articles about home improvement, repair and maintenance, tools to assist consumers with the research, planning and management of their projects and general advice for working with service professionals.
In addition to the general matching services described above, in certain markets, consumers can also submit a request to book a specific Handy service professional for a given job. Also, consumers who purchase furniture, electronics, appliances and other home-related items from select third-party retail partners online (and in certain markets, in store) can simultaneously purchase assembly, installation and other related services to be fulfilled by Handy service professionals, which are then paid for directly through the applicable third-party retail partner platform.
Service Professional Services
HomeAdvisor service professionals pay fees for consumer matches and membership subscription fees for HomeAdvisor memberships, which are available for purchase through our sales force. The basic HomeAdvisor annual membership package includes membership in the HomeAdvisor network of service professionals, as well as access to consumer matches through HomeAdvisor platforms and a listing in the HomeAdvisor online directory and certain other affiliate directories. Membership also includes a business profile page on HomeAdvisor.com, a mobile application and access to various online tools designed to help service professionals more effectively market to, manage and connect with, consumers with whom they are matched. In addition to the commercial membership terms, in order to be admitted into the HomeAdvisor network, service professionals must satisfy certain criteria, including verification of any required state-level licensing and the owner or principal passing certain criminal background checks. Once in the network, the service professional must maintain at least a three-star customer rating. If a service professional in the HomeAdvisor network fails to meet any eligibility criteria during the term of its contract, refuses to participate in our complaint resolution process, or engages in what we determine to be prohibited behavior through any of our service channels, the service professional is subject to being removed from our network.
Service professionals on the Handy platform are provided with access to a pool of consumers seeking service professionals. Professionals must validate their home service experience as well as satisfy credential verification and a background check, either as an individual professional or as the owner or principal of the business. Service professionals must maintain an acceptable rating to remain on the Handy platform. Access to the Handy platform will be revoked for repeatedly receiving low customer satisfactions ratings.
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Angie’s List
Overview
Angie’s List connects consumers with service professionals for local services through a nationwide online directory of service professionals in over 700 service categories, as well as provides consumers with valuable tools, services and content (including verified reviews of local service professionals), to help them research, shop and hire for local services. Consumers can access the Angie’s List nationwide online directory and related basic tools and services free of charge, as well as via purchased membership packages. Angie’s List also sells time-based website, mobile and call center advertising to service professionals.
Consumer Services
Through Angie’s List, consumers can currently register and search for a service professional in the Angie’s List nationwide online directory and/or be matched with a service professional. Consumers who register can access ratings and reviews and search for service professionals, as well as access certain promotions. Free registration is required in order to access the directory and related basic tools and services. Two premium membership packages are available for a fee, which include varying degrees of online and phone support, access to exclusive promotions and features and the award-winning Angie’s List print magazine.
Consumers can rate service professionals listed in the Angie’s List nationwide online directory on an “A” to “F” grading scale based on a variety of criteria, including overall experience, availability, price, quality, responsiveness, punctuality and professionalism and other criteria, depending on the type of service provided. Ratings on each applicable criterion are weighted across all reviews submitted for the service professional to produce such professional’s grade on Angie’s List. Consumers can also provide a detailed description of (and commentary regarding) their service experience. Ratings and reviews cannot be submitted anonymously and there are processes in place to prevent service professionals from reporting on themselves or their competitors, as well as to detect fraudulent or otherwise problematic reviews.
Service Professional Services
Angie’s List provides service professionals with a variety of services and tools. Generally, service professionals with an overall member grade below a “B” are not eligible for certification. Service professionals must satisfy certain criteria for certification, including retaining the requisite member grade, and the owner passing certain criminal background checks and attesting to applicable licensure requirements.
Once eligibility criteria are satisfied, service professionals must purchase term-based advertising to obtain certification. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 39,000 certified service professionals under contract for advertising. If a certified service professional fails to meet any eligibility criteria during the term of his or her contract, refuses to participate in our complaint resolution process or engages in what we determine to be prohibited behavior through any of our service channels, we suspend any existing advertising and exclusive promotions and the related advertising contract is subject to termination.
Certified service professionals rotate among the first service professionals listed in directory search results for an applicable category (together with their company name, overall rating, number of reviews, certification badge and basic profile information), with non-certified service professionals appearing below certified service professionals in directory search results. Certified service professionals can also provide exclusive promotions to members. When consumers choose to be matched with a service professional, HomeAdvisor’s proprietary algorithm will determine where a given service professional appears within related results.
Our International Businesses
We also operate several international businesses that connect consumers with home service professionals. These international businesses include: (i) Travaux, MyHammer and Werkspot, the leading home services marketplaces in France, Germany and the Netherlands, respectively, (ii) MyBuilder, HomeStars and Instapro, leading home services marketplaces in the United Kingdom, Canada and Italy, respectively, and (iii) the Austrian operations of MyHammer. We own controlling interests in MyHammer and MyBuilder and wholly-own HomeStars, Travaux, Werkspot and Instapro. The business models of our international businesses vary by jurisdiction and differ in certain respects from the HomeAdvisor and Handy business models.
Revenue
Our revenue is primarily derived from consumer connection revenue, which consists of fees paid by HomeAdvisor service professionals for consumer matches (regardless of whether the service professional ultimately provides the requested service) and revenue from completed jobs sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms. Consumer connection revenue varies based upon several factors, including the service requested, product experience offered and geographic location of service.
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Revenue is also derived from: (i) sales of time-based website, mobile and call center advertising to service professionals by Angie’s List, (ii) HomeAdvisor service professional membership subscription fees, (iii) membership subscription fees from consumers and (iv) service warranty subscription and other services revenue.
Marketing
We market our various products and services to consumers primarily through digital marketing (primarily paid search engine marketing, display advertising and third-party affiliate agreements) and traditional offline marketing (national television and radio campaigns), as well as through e-mail. Pursuant to third-party affiliate agreements, third parties agree to advertise and promote our products and services (and those of our service professionals) on their platforms. In exchange for these efforts, these third parties are paid a fixed fee when visitors from their platforms click through and submit a valid service request through our platforms, or when visitors submit a valid service request on the affiliate platform and the affiliate transmits the service request to us. We also market our products and services to consumers through relationships with select third-party retail partners and, to a lesser extent, through partnerships with other contextually related websites and direct mail.
We market HomeAdvisor matching services and membership subscriptions to service professionals primarily through our sales forces based in the Denver, Colorado area; Lenexa, Kansas; New York, New York; Indianapolis, Indiana; and Chicago, Illinois; as well as remotely based sales representatives. These products and services are also marketed, together with our Handy products and services and our pre-priced bookings and various directories, through paid search engine marketing, digital media advertising and direct relationships with trade associations and manufacturers. Term-based advertising and related products are marketed to service professionals primarily through our Indianapolis based sales force.
We have made, and expect to continue to make, substantial investments in digital and traditional offline marketing (with continued expansion into new and existing digital platforms) to consumers and service professionals to promote our products and services and drive visitors to our various platforms and service professionals.
Technology
Each of our brands and businesses develops its own technology to support its products and services, leveraging both open-source and vendor supported software technology. Each of our various brands and businesses has dedicated engineering teams responsible for software development and the creation of new features to support our products and services across a full range of devices (desktop, mobile web, native mobile applications and digital voice assistant platforms). Our engineering teams use an agile development process that allows us to deploy frequent iterative releases for product and service features.
Competition
The home services industry is highly competitive and fragmented, and in many important respects, local in nature. We compete with, among others: (i) search engines and online directories, (ii) home and/or local services-related platforms, (iii) providers of consumer ratings, reviews and referrals and (iv) various forms of traditional offline advertising (primarily local in nature), including radio, direct marketing campaigns, yellow pages, newspapers and other offline directories. We also compete with local and national retailers of home improvement products that offer or promote installation services. We believe our biggest competition comes from the traditional methods most people currently use to find service professionals, which are by word-of-mouth and through referrals.
We believe that our ability to compete successfully will depend primarily upon the following factors:
the size, quality, diversity and stability of our network of service professionals and the breadth of our online directory listings;
our ability to consistently generate service requests and pre-priced bookings through the Marketplace and leads through our online directories that convert into revenue for our service professionals in a cost-effective manner;
our ability to increasingly engage with consumers directly through our platforms, including our various mobile applications (rather than through search engine marketing or via free search engine referrals);
the functionality of our websites and mobile applications and the attractiveness of their features and our products and services generally to consumers and service professionals, as well as our continued ability to introduce new products and services that resonate with consumers and service professionals generally;
our ability to continue to build and maintain awareness of, and trust in and loyalty to, our various brands, particularly our Angie’s List, HomeAdvisor and Handy brands; and
the quality and consistency of our service professional pre-screening processes and ongoing quality control efforts, as well as the reliability, depth and timeliness of customer ratings and reviews.
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Intellectual Property
We regard our intellectual property rights as critical to our success generally, with our trademarks, service marks and domain names being especially critical to the continued development and awareness of our brands and our marketing efforts.
We protect our intellectual property rights through a combination of trademarks, trade dress, domain name registrations, trade secrets and patent applications, as well as through contractual restrictions and reliance on federal, state and common law. We enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements with employees, consultants, contractors and business partners, and employees and contractors are also subject to invention assignment provisions.
We have several registered trademarks in the United States (the most significant of which relate to our Angie’s List and HomeAdvisor brands), as well as other trademarks in Canada and Europe, and several pending trademark applications in the United States and certain other jurisdictions. We have also registered a variety of domestic and international domain names, the most significant of which relate to our HomeAdvisor and Angie’s List brands. In addition, we have one patent in the United States that expires in November 2035 and six patent applications pending in the United States.
Government Regulation
We are subject to laws and regulations that affect companies conducting business on the Internet generally and through mobile applications, including laws relating to the liability of providers of online services for their operations and the activities of their users. As a result, we could be subject to claims based on negligence, various torts and trademark and copyright infringement, among other actions.
In addition, because we receive, transmit, store and use a substantial amount of information received from or generated by consumers and service professionals, we are also impacted by laws and regulations governing privacy, the storage, sharing, use, processing, disclosure and protection of personal data and data breaches. See “Item 1A-Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business and Industry-The processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal data could give rise to liabilities and increased costs.”
We are particularly sensitive to laws and regulations that adversely impact the popularity or growth in use of the Internet and/or online products and services generally, restrict or otherwise unfavorably impact the ability or manner in which we provide our products and services, regulate the practices of third parties upon which we rely to provide our products and services and undermine open and neutrally administered Internet access. For example, in April 2019, the United Kingdom published proposed legislation that would create a new regulatory body responsible for establishing duties of care for Internet companies and for assessing related compliance. As proposed, failure to comply with the legislation could result in fines, blocking of services and personal liability for senior management. To the extent our businesses are required to implement new measures and/or make changes to our products and services to ensure compliance, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Compliance with this legislation or similar or more stringent legislation in other jurisdictions could be costly, and the failure to comply could result in service interruptions and negative publicity, any or all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, in December 2017, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (the “FCC”) adopted an order reversing net neutrality protections in the United States, including the repeal of specific rules against blocking, throttling or “paid prioritization” of content or services by Internet service providers. To the extent Internet service providers take such actions, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Similarly, there have been various legislative efforts to restrict the scope of the protections available to online platforms under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, and our current protections from liability for third-party content in the United States could decrease or change as a result. Any future adverse changes to Section 230 could result in additional compliance costs for us and/or exposure for additional liabilities.
We are also generally sensitive to the adoption of new tax laws. The European Commission and several European countries have recently adopted (or intend to adopt) proposals that would change various aspects of the current tax framework under which our European businesses are taxed, including proposals to change or impose new types of non-income taxes (including taxes based on a percentage of revenue). For example, France enacted a Digital Services Tax in 2019, which is applicable to revenues over specified thresholds generated by businesses that provide intermediary services (any digital interface that enables users to contact and interact with others) to, and/or publish advertising-based user data linked to, users residing in France. The proposal, which is applicable retroactively to revenues earned from and after January 1, 2019, would likely apply to our operations in France. The United Kingdom previously enacted a similar proposal, the Digital Services Tax, which is applicable to revenues of social media platforms, online marketplaces and search engines linked to users residing in the United Kingdom and earned from and after April 1, 2020, which applies to certain of our operations in United Kingdom. One or more of these or similar proposed tax laws could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a provider of products and services with a membership-based element, we are also sensitive to the adoption of laws and regulations affecting the ability of our businesses to periodically charge for recurring membership or subscription
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payments. For example, the European Union Payment Services directive, which became effective in 2018, could impact the ability of our businesses to process auto-renewal payments for, as well offer promotional or differentiated pricing to, users who reside in the European Union, and similar new (and proposed changes to similar existing) legislation or regulations, are being considered in many U.S. states. The adoption of any law that adversely affects revenue from recurring membership or subscription payments could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are also subject to laws governing marketing and advertising activities conducted by/through telephone, e-mail, mobile devices and the Internet, including the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the CAN-SPAM Act and similar state laws, as well as federal, state, and local laws and agency guidelines governing background screening.
Human Capital Management
As of December 31, 2020, we employ approximately 5,100 full-time employees worldwide, the substantial majority of which provided services to our brands and businesses located in the United States. We also retain consultants, independent contractors, and temporary and part-time workers.
Talent and Development
The development, attraction and retention of employees is critical to our success. We strive to provide an atmosphere that fosters teamwork and growth. We are investing in a more productive, engaged, diverse and inclusive workforce. To support the advancement of our employees, we offer training and development programs and encourage advancement from within. In 2020, we launched a Learning Management system for broader facilitation of training resources. We leverage both formal and informal programs to identify, foster, and retain top talent. We believe that our rich culture enables us to create, develop and fully leverage the strengths of our workforce to exceed consumer expectations and meet our growth objectives. We also place a high value on inclusion, engaging employees in our Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Council, or DEI, which is staffed by employees with diverse backgrounds, experiences or characteristics who share a common interest in professional development, improving corporate culture and delivering sustained business results. Recent DEI initiatives include unconscious bias training and a women in leadership program.
Total Rewards and Benefits
As part of our compensation philosophy, we believe that we must offer and maintain market competitive total rewards programs for our employees in order to attract and retain superior talent. These programs include base wages and incentives in support of our pay for performance culture, as well as health, welfare, and retirement benefits, vision, dental, life, prescription, and long-term disability insurance plans. We also provide employee paid supplemental life and accident insurance plans. To help employees cover medical expenses pre-tax, we offer employees a Flexible Spending Account. We also focus many programs on employee wellness and have implemented solutions including mental health support access, telemedicine, and fitness programs. We also offer our US-based full-time employees a 401(k) retirement plan with a Company match.
Community
We encourage our employees to become involved in their communities by providing full-time employees eight hours of paid-time off to volunteer in local community-based programs.
COVID Response
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we quickly implemented safety and health standards and protocols for our employees to ensure a safe work environment. Employees in our offices have been working remotely since March 2020. When our employees return to the office, we will adhere to the recommended protocols of the Centers for Disease Control or local regulations.
Ethics
Our employees are required to annually agree to comply with our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and any deviations by our directors and executive officers are required to be approved by our Board. We also maintain an Ethics Hotline that is available to all of our employees to report (anonymously if desired) any matter of concern. Communications to the hotline (which is facilitated by an independent third party) are routed to appropriate functions (whether Human Resources, Legal or Finance) for investigation and resolution. In addition, any shareholder or other interested party may send communications to the Board of Directors, either individually or as a group, through a process that is outlined in the Investor Relations section of our website.

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Additional Information
Company Website and Public Filings
We maintain a website at www.angihomeservices.com. Neither the information on this website, nor the information on the websites of any of our brands and businesses, is incorporated by reference into this annual report, or into any other filings with, or into any other information furnished or submitted to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
We also make available, free of charge through our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K (including related amendments) as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been electronically filed with (or furnished to) the SEC.
Code of Ethics
Our code of ethics applies to all of our employees (including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer) and directors and is posted on our website at http://ir.angihomeservices.com under the heading “Code of Ethics.” This code of ethics complies with Item 406 of SEC Regulation S-K and the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC. Any changes to this code of ethics that affect the provisions required by Item 406 of Regulation S-K (and any waivers of such provisions of the code of ethics for our executive officers, senior financial officers or directors) will also be disclosed on our website.
RELATIONSHIP WITH IAC
Equity Ownership and Vote
We have two classes of capital stock outstanding, Class A common stock and Class B common stock, with one vote and ten votes per share, respectively. Our shares of Class B common stock are convertible into shares of Class A common stock on a share for share basis. As of December 31, 2020, IAC owned 421,861,990 shares of Class B common stock, representing 100% of our outstanding Class B common stock, and did not own any shares of our Class A common stock. As of that date, IAC’s Class B common stock holdings represented approximately 84.3% of our total outstanding shares of capital stock and approximately 98.2% of the total combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock.
Intercompany Agreements
In connection with the Combination, we and IAC entered into certain agreements to govern our relationship following the Combination. These agreements include the following:
Contribution Agreement
Under the contribution agreement: (i) we agreed to assume all of the assets and liabilities related to the HomeAdvisor business and indemnify IAC against any losses arising out of any breach by us of the contribution agreement or any other transaction related agreement described below and (ii) IAC agreed to indemnify us against losses arising out of any breach by IAC of the contribution agreement or any other transaction related agreement described below.
Investor Rights Agreement
Under the investor rights agreement, IAC has certain registration, preemptive and governance rights related to us and the shares of our capital stock it holds. The investor rights agreement also provides certain governance rights for the benefit of stockholders other than IAC.
Services Agreement
The services agreement currently governs services that IAC has agreed to provide to us through September 29, 2021, with automatic renewal for successive one-year terms, subject to IAC’s continued ownership of a majority of the total combined voting power of our voting stock and any subsequent extension(s) or truncation(s) agreed to by us and IAC. Services currently provided to us by IAC pursuant this agreement include: (i) assistance with certain legal, M&A, human resources, finance, risk management, internal audit and treasury functions, health and welfare benefits, information security services and insurance and tax affairs, including assistance with certain public company and unclaimed property reporting obligations; (ii) accounting, controllership and payroll processing services; (iii) investor relations services and (iv) tax compliance services. The scope, nature and extent of services may be changed from time to time as we and IAC may agree.
Tax Sharing Agreement
The tax sharing agreement governs our and IAC’s rights, responsibilities and obligations with respect to tax liabilities and benefits, entitlements to refunds, preparation of tax returns, tax contests and other tax matters regarding U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income taxes. Under the tax sharing agreement, we are generally responsible and required to indemnify IAC for: (i) all taxes imposed with respect to any consolidated, combined or unitary tax return of IAC or its subsidiaries that includes us or
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any of our subsidiaries (to the extent attributable to us or any of our subsidiaries, as determined under the tax sharing agreement) and (ii) all taxes imposed with respect to any consolidated, combined, unitary or separate tax returns of us or our subsidiaries.
Employee Matters Agreement
The employee matters agreement addresses certain compensation and benefit issues related to the allocation of liabilities associated with: (i) employment or termination of employment; (ii) employee benefit plans and (iii) equity awards. Under the employee matters agreement, our employees participate in IAC’s U.S. health and welfare plans, 401(k) plan and flexible benefits plan and we reimburse IAC for the costs of such participation. In the event IAC no longer retains shares representing at least 80% of the aggregate voting power of shares entitled to vote in the election of our board of directors, we will no longer participate in IAC’s employee benefit plans, but will establish our own employee benefit plans that will be substantially similar to the plans sponsored by IAC.
In addition, under the employee matters agreement, we are required to reimburse IAC for the cost of any IAC equity awards held by our current and former employees, with IAC electing to receive payment either in cash or shares of our Class B common stock. This agreement also provides that IAC may require stock appreciation rights granted prior the closing of the Combination and equity awards in our subsidiaries to be settled in either shares of our Class A common stock or IAC common stock. To the extent shares of IAC common stock are issued in settlement of these awards, we are obligated to reimburse IAC for the cost of those shares by issuing shares of our Class A common stock in the case of stock appreciation rights granted prior to the closing of the Combination and shares of our Class B common stock in the case of equity awards in our subsidiaries.
Lastly, pursuant to the employee matters agreement, in the event of a distribution of ANGI capital stock to IAC stockholders in a transaction intended to qualify as tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Compensation Committee of the IAC board of directors has the exclusive authority to determine the treatment of outstanding IAC equity awards. Such authority includes (but is not limited to) the ability to convert all of part of IAC equity awards outstanding immediately prior to the distribution into equity awards denominated in shares of ANGI Class A Common Stock, which ANGI would be obligated to assume and which would be dilutive to ANGI's stockholders.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
This annual report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The use of words such as “anticipates”, “estimates”, “expects”, “plans”, “intends”, “will continue”, “may”, “could” and “believes”, among similar expressions, generally identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include, among others, statements relating to: our future business, financial condition, results of operations and financial performance, our business strategy, trends in the home services industry and other similar matters. These forward-looking statements are based on the expectations and assumptions of our management about future events as of the date of this annual report, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict.
Actual results could differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements for a variety of reasons, including, among others, the risk factors set forth below. Other unknown or unpredictable factors that could also adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations may arise from time to time. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking statements discussed in this annual report may not prove to be accurate. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which only reflect the views of our management as of the date of this annual report. We do not undertake to update these forward-looking statements.
Risk Factors
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our brands and businesses operate in an especially competitive and evolving industry.
The home services industry is competitive, with a consistent and growing stream of new products, services and entrants. Some of our competitors may enjoy better competitive positions in certain geographical areas, with certain consumer and service professional demographics and/or in other key areas that we currently serve or may serve in the future. Generally, we compete with search engines, online marketplaces and social media platforms that have the ability to market their products and services online in a more prominent and cost-effective manner than we can, as well as better tailor their products and services to individual users. Any of these advantages could enable these competitors to offer products and services that are more appealing to consumers and service professionals than our products and services, respond more quickly and/or cost effectively than we do to evolving market opportunities and trends and/or display their own integrated or related home services products and services
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in search results and elsewhere in a more prominent manner than our products and services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, since most home services products and services are offered to consumers for free, consumers can easily switch among home services offerings (or use multiple home services offerings simultaneously) at no cost to them. And while service professionals may incur additional or duplicative near-term costs, the costs for switching to a competing platform over the long term are generally not prohibitive. Low switching costs, coupled with the propensity of consumers to try new products and services generally, will most likely result in the continued emergence of new products and services, entrants and business models in the home services industry. Our inability to continue to innovate and compete effectively against new products, services and competitors could result in decreases in the size and level of engagement of our consumer and service professional bases, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success will depend, in substantial part, on the continued migration of the home services market online.
We believe that the digital penetration of the home services market remains low, with the vast majority of consumers continuing to search for, select and hire service professionals offline. While many consumers have historically been (and remain) averse to finding service professionals online, others have demonstrated a greater willingness to embrace the online shift. Service professionals must also continue to embrace the online shift, which will depend, in substantial part, on whether online products and services help them to better connect and engage with consumers relative to traditional offline efforts. The speed and ultimate outcome of the shift of the home services market online for consumers and service professionals is uncertain and may not occur as quickly as we expect, or at all. The failure or delay of a meaningful number of consumers and/or service professionals to migrate online and/or the return of a meaningful number of existing participants in the online home services market to offline solutions, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our brands and businesses are sensitive to general economic events or trends, particularly those that adversely impact consumer confidence and spending behavior.
We have historically been, and will continue to be, particularly sensitive to events and trends that result in consumers delaying or foregoing home services projects and/or service professionals being less likely to pay for consumer matches and Marketplace subscriptions. Any such event or trend (for example, a general economic downturn or sudden disruption in business conditions, consumer confidence, spending levels and access to credit) could result in decreases in Marketplace service requests, pre-priced bookings and directory searches. Any such decreases could result in turnover at the Marketplace and/or any of our directories, adversely impact the number and quality of service professionals at the Marketplace and our directories and/or adversely impact the reach of (and breath of services offered through) the Marketplace and our directories, any or all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Lastly, we have historically been, and will continue to be, sensitive to events and trends that could result in decreased marketing and advertising expenditures by service professionals. Adverse economic conditions and trends could result in service professionals decreasing and/or delaying fees paid for consumer matches, pre-priced bookings, membership subscriptions and/or time-based advertising spend, any or all of which would result in decreased revenue and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The expansion of our pre-priced booking services, while balancing the overall mix of our service request and directory services in our Marketplace, is critical to our business, financial condition and results of operations.
For our pre-priced booking services offering, we contract with a service professional to perform a specific task for a consumer at a contracted price. Compared to our Marketplace service requests, which match a service professional to a consumer opportunity, our pre-priced booking services contractually connect a service professional to a consumer’s task. Pre-priced booking services potentially offer higher margin opportunities, but also involve greater financial risk because we bear the impact of cost overruns, which could result in increased costs and expenses. An increase in the percentage of pre-priced booking services may also reduce service professional’s level of participation in our Marketplace service request and directory offering(s). As we expand our pre-priced booking services, we expect our mix of pre-priced booking services will be increasing over time.
An increase in the percentage of pre-priced booking services in our mix of offerings could increase the risk that we suffer losses if we underestimate the level of effort or costs required to perform the consumer’s task. Our profits could be adversely affected if our costs exceed the assumptions we used in offering the contracted task. For example, we may miscalculate the costs, materials, or time needed to complete a task or we might be provided with inaccurate information by the consumer, which could result in us charging consumers too little for contracted tasks, which in turn would result in us having to absorb the actual, higher cost for contracted tasks or risk not being able to find service professionals to perform contracted tasks at the contracted rate. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if our actual costs exceed the assumptions we used in offering the contracted task in our pre-priced booking service.
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The global outbreak of COVID-19 and other similar outbreaks could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The coronavirus outbreak (“COVID-19”) has caused a widespread global health crisis, resulting in significant social disruption and has had (and is likely to continue to have) an adverse effect on economic conditions generally, as well as on consumer confidence and spending, all of which could have an adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition and results of operations. When COVID-19 first impacted North America and Europe in the early spring of 2020, we experienced a decline in demand for service requests, driven primarily by decreases in demand in certain categories of jobs (particularly discretionary indoor projects). Toward the end of the spring of 2020, we experienced a rebound in service requests, exceeding pre-COVID-19 growth levels, driven by increased demand from consumers who spent more time at home due to measures taken to reduce the spread of COVID-19. However, throughout 2020 many service professionals’ businesses have been adversely impacted by labor and material constraints and many service professionals have limited capacity to take on new business, which has negatively impacted our ability to monetize this increased level of service requests. Also, North America, which represents 95% of our revenue for twelve months ended December 31, 2020, experienced a significant resurgence of the COVID-19 virus with record levels of infections being reported during the fourth quarter of 2020 and continuing into the first quarter of 2021. Europe, which is the second largest market for the Company’s products and services, has also seen a dramatic resurgence in COVID-19. This resurgence and the measures designed to curb its spread could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, in response to the COVID-19 outbreak and government-imposed measures to control its spread, our ability to conduct ordinary course business activities has been (and may continue to be) impaired for an indefinite period of time. For example, we have taken several precautions that could adversely impact employee productivity, such as requiring employees to work remotely for the first time in the Company’s history, as well as imposing travel restrictions and temporarily closing office locations. While we have found that our employees (including call center and sales employees) have transitioned to working remotely with limited disruption to date, no assurances can be provided that their productivity and efficiency will remain at pre-pandemic levels, particularly if they are required to continue working remotely for an extended period of time. Also, working remotely may involve increased operational risks, such as increased risks of “phishing,” other cybersecurity attacks or the unauthorized dissemination of personally identifiable information or proprietary and confidential information. Lastly, moving employees back to the office may introduce distraction that could have a temporary negative impact on the Company’s productivity, and in turn, revenue. We may also experience increased operating costs as we gradually resume normal operations and enhance preventative measures, including with respect to real estate, compliance and insurance-related expenses. Moreover, we may also experience business disruption if the ordinary course operations of our contractors, vendors or business partners are adversely affected. Any of these measures or impairments could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 outbreak may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risks Related to Our Business and Industry” section.
We must establish and maintain relationships with quality service professionals.
We must continue to attract, retain and grow the number of skilled and reliable service professionals who can provide services that consumers want in a timely manner across our various brands and businesses. If we do not offer innovative products and services that resonate with consumers and service professionals generally, as well provide service professionals with an attractive return on their marketing and advertising investments (quality matches and leads that convert into jobs), the number of service professionals affiliated with our various brands and businesses could decrease. Any such decrease would result in smaller and less diverse networks and directories of service professionals, and in turn, decreases in number of pre-priced bookings, service requests and directory searches, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The trustworthiness of our Marketplaces and the connections within our Marketplace are important to our success. Our success will depend, in substantial part, on our ability to maintain and/or enhance our various brands.
We own and operate two of the leading home services brands in the United States (Angie’s List and HomeAdvisor), as well as leading brands in several foreign jurisdictions. We believe that our success depends, in substantial part, on our continued ability to maintain and enhance our established brands, as well as build awareness of (and loyalty to) new and emerging brands. Events that could negatively impact our brands and brand-building efforts include (among others): product and service quality concerns, service professional quality concerns, consumer and service professional complaints and lawsuits, lack of awareness of our policies or confusion about how the policies are applied, a failure to respond to feedback from our service professionals and consumers, ineffective advertising, inappropriate and/or unlawful acts perpetrated by service professionals and consumers, actions or proceedings commenced by governmental or regulatory authorities, data protection and security breaches and related bad publicity. Any factors that negatively impact the Angie’s List and/or HomeAdvisor brand(s) could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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In addition, trust in the integrity and objective, unbiased nature of the ratings and reviews found across our various brands contributes significantly to public perception of these brands and their ability to attract consumers and service professionals. If consumer reviews are perceived as not authentic in general, the reputation and strength of the relevant brand could be materially and adversely affected. While we use, and will continue to use, filters (among other processes) to detect fraudulent reviews, the accuracy of consumer reviews cannot be guaranteed. If fraudulent or inaccurate reviews (positive or negative) increase and we are unable to effectively identify and remove such reviews, the overall quality of the ratings and reviews across our various brands could decrease and the reputation of affected brands might be harmed. This could deter consumers and service professionals from using our products and services, which in turn could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to establish and maintain relationships with quality and trustworthy service professionals.
We must continue to attract, retain and grow the number of skilled and reliable service professionals who can provide services across our platforms. If we do not offer innovative products and services that resonate with consumers and service professionals generally, as well provide service professionals with an attractive return on their marketing and advertising investments, the number of service professionals affiliated with our platforms, would decrease. Any such decrease would result in smaller and less diverse networks and directories of service professionals, and in turn, decreases in service requests, pre-priced bookings and directory searches, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to skill and reliability, consumers want to work with service professionals whom they can trust to work in their homes and with whom they can feel safe. While we maintain screening processes (which generally include certain, limited background checks) to try and prevent unsuitable service professionals from joining our platforms, these processes have limitations and, even with these safety measures, no assurances can be provided regarding the future behavior of any service provider on our platforms. Inappropriate and/or unlawful behavior of service professionals generally, (particularly any such behavior that compromises the trustworthiness of service providers and/or of the safety of consumers) could result in decreases in service requests, bad publicity and related damage to our reputation, brands and brand-building efforts and/or actions by governmental and regulatory authorities, criminal proceedings and/or litigation. The occurrence or any of these events could, in turn, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Marketing efforts designed to drive traffic to our brands and businesses may not be successful or cost-effective.
Attracting consumers and service professionals to our brands and businesses involves considerable expenditures for online and offline marketing. We have made, and expect to continue to make, significant marketing expenditures, primarily for digital marketing (primarily paid search engine marketing, display advertising and third-party affiliate agreements) and traditional offline marketing (national television and radio campaigns). These efforts may not be successful or cost-effective. Historically, we have had to increase marketing expenditures over time to attract and retain users and service professionals and sustain our growth.
Our ability to market our brands on any given property or channel is subject to the policies of the relevant third-party seller, publisher of advertising (including search engines and social media platforms with extraordinarily high levels of traffic and numbers of users) or marketing affiliate. As a result, we cannot assure you that these parties will not limit or prohibit us from purchasing certain types of advertising (including the purchase by ANGI Homeservices of advertising with preferential placement), advertising certain of our products and services and/or using one or more current or prospective marketing channels in the future. If a significant marketing channel took such an action generally, for a significant period of time and/or on a recurring basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, if we fail to comply with the policies of third-party sellers, publishers of advertising and/or marketing affiliates, our advertisements could be removed without notice and/or our accounts could be suspended or terminated, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, our failure to respond to rapid and frequent changes in the pricing and operating dynamics of search engines, as well as changing policies and guidelines applicable to keyword advertising (which may unilaterally be updated by search engines without advance notice), could adversely affect our paid search engine marketing efforts (and free search engine traffic). Such changes could adversely affect paid listings (both their placement and pricing), as well as the ranking of our brands and businesses within search results, any or all of which could increase our marketing expenditures (particularly if free traffic is replaced with paid traffic). Any or all of these events could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Evolving consumer behavior (specifically, increased consumption of media through digital means) can also affect the availability of profitable marketing opportunities. To continue to reach and engage consumers and service professionals and grow in this environment, we will need to continue to identify and devote more of our overall marketing expenditures to newer
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digital advertising channels (such as online video and other digital platforms), as well as target consumers and service professionals via these channels. Since newer advertising channels are undeveloped and unproven relative to traditional channels (such as television), it could be difficult to assess returns on marketing investments in newer channels, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Lastly, we also enter into various arrangements with third parties to drive visitors to our HomeAdvisor platforms. These arrangements are generally more cost-effective than traditional marketing efforts. If we are unable to renew existing (and enter into new) arrangements of this nature, sales and marketing costs as a percentage of revenue would increase over the long-term, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the quality and convertibility of traffic and leads generated through third-party arrangements are dependent on many factors, most of which are outside our control. If the quality and/or convertibility of traffic and leads do not meet the expectations of our users and/or HomeAdvisor service professionals, they could leave the Marketplace and/or decrease their budgets for consumer matches or participation in pre-priced booking services, any or all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on Internet search engines to drive traffic to our various properties. Certain operators of search services offer products and services that compete directly with our products and services. If links to websites offering our products and services are not displayed prominently in search results, traffic to our properties could decline and our business could be adversely affected.
In addition to paid marketing, we rely heavily on Internet search engines, such as Google, to drive traffic to our properties through their unpaid search results. Although search results have allowed us to attract a large audience with low organic traffic acquisition costs in the past, if they fail to continue to drive sufficient traffic to our properties, we may need to increase our marketing spend to acquire additional traffic. We cannot assure you that the value we ultimately derive from any such additional traffic would exceed the cost of acquisition, and any increase in marketing expense may in turn harm our operating results.
The amount of traffic we attract from search engines is due in large part to how and where information from (and links to websites offering our products and services) are displayed on search engine results pages. The display, including rankings, of unpaid search results can be affected by a number of factors, many of which are not in our direct control, and may change frequently. Search engines have made changes in the past to their ranking algorithms, methodologies and design layouts that have reduced the prominence of links to websites offering our products and services, and negatively impacted traffic to such websites, and we expect that search engines will continue to make such changes from time to time in the future.
However, we may not know how (or otherwise be in a position) to influence actions of this nature taken by search engines. With respect to search results in particular, even when search engines announce the details of their methodologies, their parameters may change from time to time, be poorly defined or be inconsistently interpreted.
In addition, in some instances, search engines may change their displays or rankings in order to promote their own competing products or services, or the products or services of one or more of our competitors. Any such action could negatively impact the search rankings of links to websites offering our products and services, or the prominence with which such links appear in search results. Our success depends on the ability of our products and services to maintain a prominent position in search results, and in the event operators of search engines promote their own competing products in the future in a manner that has the effect of reducing the prominence or ranking of our products and services, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to communicate with consumers and service professionals via e-mail (or other sufficient means) is critical to our success.
Historically, one of our primary means of communicating with consumers and service professionals and keeping them engaged with our products and services has been via e-mail communication. Through e-mail, we provide consumers and service professionals with service request and pre-priced booking service updates, as well as present or suggest new products and services (among other things) and market our products and services in a cost-effective manner. As consumers increasingly communicate via mobile and other digital devices and messaging and social media apps, usage of e-mail (particularly among younger consumers) has declined and we expect this trend to continue. In addition, deliverability and other restrictions could limit or prevent our ability to send e-mails to consumers and service professionals. A continued and significant erosion in our ability to communicate with consumers and service professionals via e-mail could adversely impact the overall user experience, consumer and service professional engagement levels and conversion rates, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure you that any alternative means of communication (for example, push notifications and text messaging) will be as effective as e-mail has been historically.
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Our success depends, in part, on our ability to access, collect and use personal data about consumers.
We depend on search engines, digital app stores and social media platforms, in particular, those operated by Google, Apple and Facebook, to market, distribute and monetize our products and services. Consumers engage with these platforms directly, and as a result, these platforms may receive personal data about consumers that we would otherwise receive if we transacted with them directly. Certain of these platforms have restricted our access to personal data about users of our products and services obtained through their platforms. If these platforms limit or increasingly limit, eliminate or otherwise interfere with our ability to access, collect and use personal data about users of our products and services that they have collected, our ability to identify and communicate with a meaningful portion of our user base may be adversely impacted. If so, our customer relationship management efforts, our ability to identify, target and reach new segments of our user base and the population generally and the efficiency of our paid marketing efforts could be adversely affected. We cannot assure you that search engines, digital app stores and social media platforms upon which we rely will not limit or increasingly limit, eliminate or otherwise interfere with our ability to access, collect and use personal data about users of our products and services that they have collected. To the extent that any or all of them do so, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to develop and monetize versions of our products and services for mobile and other digital devices.
As consumers increasingly access our products and services through mobile and other digital devices (including through digital voice assistants), we will need to continue to devote significant time and resources to ensure that our products and services are accessible across these platforms (and multiple platforms generally). If we do not keep pace with evolving online, market and industry trends (including the introduction of new and enhanced digital devices and changes in the preferences and needs of consumers and service professionals generally), offer new and/or enhanced products and services in response to such trends that resonate with consumers and service professionals, monetize products and services for mobile and other digital devices as effectively as our traditional products and services and/or maintain related systems, technology and infrastructure in an efficient and cost-effective manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition, the success of our mobile and other digital products and services depends on their interoperability with various third-party operating systems, technology, infrastructure and standards, over which we have no control. Any changes to any of these things that compromise the quality or functionality of our mobile and other digital products and services could adversely affect their usage levels and/or our ability to attract consumers and service professionals, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There may be adverse tax, legal and other consequences if the contractor classification or employment status of the service professionals who use our platform is challenged.
We are particularly sensitive to the adoption of worker classification laws, specifically, laws that could effectively require us to change our classification of certain of our service professionals from independent contractors to employees, as well as changes to state and local laws or judicial decisions related to the definition and/or classification of independent contractors. For example, California recently passed a worker classification statute (AB 5), which effectively narrowed the definition of an independent contractor by requiring hiring entities to use a stricter test to determine a given worker’s classification. In addition, AB 5 places the burden of proof for classifying workers as independent contractors on the hiring entity and provides enforcement powers to the state and certain cities. In addition, AB 5 has been the subject of widespread national discussion and it is possible that other jurisdictions, including New York and New Jersey, may enact similar laws. Since we currently treat service professionals who provide services through our business as independent contractors for all purposes, we do not withhold federal, state and local income or other employment related taxes, make federal or state unemployment tax or Federal Insurance Contributions Act payments or provide workers’ compensation insurance with respect to these individuals. If we are required as the result of new laws to reclassify these individuals as employees, we could be exposed to various liabilities and additional costs, including exposure (for prior and future periods) under federal, state and local tax laws, and workers’ compensation, unemployment benefits, labor, and employment laws, as well as potential liability for penalties and interest, any or all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are involved in various legal proceedings and investigations challenging the classification of these individuals as independent contractors, and may become involved in other proceedings and investigations in the future.
We may not be able to protect our systems, technology and infrastructure from cyberattacks and cyberattacks experienced by third parties may adversely affect us.
We are regularly under attack by perpetrators of malicious technology-related events, such as the use of botnets, malware or other destructive or disruptive software, distributed denial of service attacks, phishing, attempts to misappropriate user information and account login credentials and other similar malicious activities. The incidence of events of this nature (or any combination thereof) is on the rise worldwide. We continuously develop and maintain systems designed to detect and prevent events of this nature from impacting our systems, technology, infrastructure, products, services and users. We have invested
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(and continue to invest) heavily in these efforts and related personnel and training and deploy data minimization strategies (where appropriate), these efforts are costly and require ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome preventative security measures become more sophisticated. Despite these efforts, some of our systems have experienced past security incidents, none of which had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and we could experience significant events of this nature in the future.
Any event of this nature that we experience could damage our systems, technology and infrastructure and/or those of our users, prevent us from providing our products and services, compromise the integrity of our products and services, damage our reputation, erode our brands and/or be costly to remedy, as well as subject us to investigations by regulatory authorities, fines and/or litigation that could result in liability to third parties. Even if we do not experience such events firsthand, the impact of any such events experienced by third parties could have a similar effect. For example, although we did not experience any material impacts from the SolarWinds Orion cybersecurity breach that was widely publicized in December 2020, we cannot assure you that we will not experience future events involving third party service providers that may be material. We may not have adequate insurance coverage to compensate for losses resulting from any of these events. If we (or any third-party with whom we do business or otherwise rely upon) experience(s) an event of this nature, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If personal, confidential or sensitive user information that we maintain and store is breached or otherwise accessed by unauthorized persons, it may be costly to mitigate and our reputation could be harmed.
We receive, process, store and transmit a significant amount of personal, confidential or sensitive user information and, in certain cases, enable users to share their personal information with each other. While we continuously develop and maintain systems designed to protect the security, integrity and confidentiality of this information, we cannot guarantee that inadvertent or unauthorized use or disclosure will not occur or that third parties will not gain unauthorized access to this information. When such events occur, we may not be able to remedy them, we may be required by law to notify regulators and impacted individuals and it may be costly to mitigate the impact of such events and to develop and implement protections to prevent future events of this nature from occurring. When breaches of security (ours or that of any third-party we engage to store information) occur, we could face governmental enforcement actions, significant fines, litigation (including consumer class actions) and the reputation of our brands and business could be harmed, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if any of the search engines, digital app store or social media platform through which we market, distribute and monetize our products and services were to experience a breach, third parties could gain unauthorized access to personal data about our users and subscribers, which could indirectly harm the reputation of our brands and businesses and in turn, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See also “The processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal data could give rise to liabilities and increased costs.”
The processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal data could give rise to liabilities and increased costs.
We receive, transmit and store a large volume of personal information in connection with the provision of our products and services. The manner in which we share, store, use, disclose and protect this information is determined by the respective privacy and data security policies of our various businesses, as well as federal, state and foreign laws and regulations and evolving industry standards and practices, which are changing, and in some cases, inconsistent and conflicting and subject to differing interpretations. In addition, new laws, regulations, standards and practices of this nature are proposed and adopted from time to time.
For example, a comprehensive European Union privacy and data protection reform, the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), became effective in May 2018. The GDPR, which applies to companies that are organized in the European Union or otherwise provide services to (or monitor) consumers who reside in the European Union, imposes significant penalties (monetary and otherwise) for non-compliance, as well as provides a private right of action for individual claimants. The GDPR will continue to be interpreted by European Union Data protection regulators, which may require that we make changes to our business practices and could generate additional risks and liabilities. The European Union is also considering an update to its Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive to impose stricter rules regarding the use of cookies.
Also, the exit from the European Union by the United Kingdom could result in the application of new and conflicting data privacy and protection laws and standards to our operations in the United Kingdom and our handling of personal data of users located in the United Kingdom. At the same time, many jurisdictions abroad in which we do business have already or are currently considering adopting privacy and data protection laws and regulations.
Moreover, multiple legislative proposals concerning privacy and the protection of user information are being considered by the U.S. Congress and various state legislatures (including those in Illinois, New York, Virginia and Washington). Other U.S. state legislatures have already enacted privacy legislation, one of the strictest and most comprehensive of which is the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which became effective January 1, 2020 (the “CCPA”). The CCPA provides new data privacy rights for California consumers, including the right to know what personal information is being collected about them and how it is being used, as well as significant rights over the use of their personal information (including the right to have
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such information deleted and the right to object to the sale of such information) and new operational requirements for businesses (primarily providing consumers with enhanced privacy-related disclosures). The CCPA restricts the ability of our businesses to use personal California user and subscriber information in connection with our various products, services and operations, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The CCPA also provides consumers with a private right of action for security breaches, as well as provides for statutory damages of up to $750 per violation, with the California Attorney General maintaining authority to enforce the CCPA and seek civil penalties for intentional violations of the CCPA of up to $7,500 per violation. In addition, California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) was passed in November 2020 and will take effect on January 1, 2023, which could further restrict the ability of our businesses to use personal California user and subscriber information in connection with our various products, services and operations and/or impose additional operational requirements on our businesses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Lastly, the Federal Trade Commission has also increased its focus on privacy and data security practices, as evidenced by the first-of-its-kind, $5 billion dollar fine against a social media platform for privacy violations.
While we believe that we comply with applicable privacy and data protection policies, laws and regulations and industry standards and practices in all material respects, we could still be subject to claims of non-compliance that we may not be able to successfully defend and/or significant fines and penalties. Moreover, any non-compliance or perceived non-compliance by us (or any third-party we engage to store or process information) or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access to (or use or transmission of) personal information could result in a variety of claims against us, including governmental enforcement actions, significant fines, litigation (including consumer class actions), claims of breach of contract and indemnity by third parties and adverse publicity. When such events occur, our reputation could be harmed and the competitive positions of our various brands and businesses could be diminished, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, to the extent multiple U.S. state-level (or European Union member-state level) laws are introduced with inconsistent or conflicting standards and there is no federal or European Union regulation to preempt such laws, compliance could be even more difficult to achieve and our potential exposure to the risks discussed above could increase.
Lastly, ongoing compliance with existing (and compliance with future) privacy and data protection laws worldwide could be costly. The devotion of significant costs to compliance (versus the development of products and services) could result in delays in the development of new products and services, us ceasing to provide problematic products and services in existing jurisdictions and us being prevented from introducing products and services in new and existing jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Credit card data security breaches or fraud could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We accept payments (including recurring payments) from service professionals and consumers, primarily through credit and debit card transactions. The ability to access payment information on a real-time basis without having to proactively reach out to service professionals and consumers to process payments is critical to our success.
When third parties (including credit card processing companies, as well as any business that offers products and services online or offline) experience a data security breach involving credit card information, affected cardholders will often cancel their credit cards. The more sizable a given affected third-party’s customer base, the greater the number of accounts impacted and the more likely it will be that our service professionals and consumers would be impacted by such a breach. If such a breach were to impact our service professionals and consumers were affected, we would need to contact affected service professionals and consumers to obtain new payment information. It is likely that we would not be able to reach all affected service professionals and consumers, and even if we could, new payment information for some may not be obtained and pending payments may not be processed, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if our service professionals and consumers are not directly impacted by a given data security breach, they may lose confidence in the ability of providers of online products and services to protect their personal information generally. As a result, they may stop using their credit cards online and choose alternative payment methods that are not as convenient for us or restrict our ability to process payments without significant effort, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends, in part, on the integrity, quality, efficiency and scalability of our systems, technology and infrastructure, and those of third parties.
We rely on our systems, technology and infrastructure to perform well on a consistent basis. From time to time in the past we have experienced (and in the future we may experience) occasional interruptions that make some or all of this framework and related information unavailable or that prevent us from providing products and services; any such interruption could arise for any number of reasons. We also rely on third-party data center service providers and cloud-based, hosted web service providers, as well as third-party computer systems and a variety of communications systems and service providers in
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connection with the provision of our products and services generally, as well as to facilitate and process certain payment and other transactions with users. We have no control over any of these third parties or their operations.
The framework described above could be damaged or interrupted at any time due to fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, acts of God and other similar events or disruptions. Any event of this nature could prevent us from providing our products and services at all (or result in the provision of our products and services on a delayed or intermittent basis) and/or result in the loss of critical data. While we and the third parties upon whom we rely have certain backup systems in place for certain aspects of our respective frameworks, none of our frameworks are fully redundant and disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for all eventualities. In addition, we may not have adequate insurance coverage to compensate us for losses from a major interruption. When such damages, interruptions or outages occur, our reputation could be harmed and the competitive positions of our various brands and businesses could be diminished, any or all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We also continually work to expand and enhance the efficiency and scalability of our framework to improve the consumer and service professional experience, accommodate substantial increases in the number of visitors to our various platforms, ensure acceptable load times for our various products and services and keep up with changes in technology and user preferences. If we do not do so in a timely and cost-effective manner, the user experience and demand across our brands and businesses could be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may experience risks related to acquisitions.
We have made numerous acquisitions in the past and we continue to seek to identify potential acquisition candidates to expand our business generally in the future. If we do not identify suitable acquisition candidates or complete acquisitions on satisfactory pricing or other terms, our growth could be adversely affected. Even if we complete what we believe to be suitable acquisitions, we may experience related operational and financial risks. As a result, to the extent that we continue to grow through acquisitions, we will need to:
properly value prospective acquisitions, especially those with limited operating histories;
successfully integrate the operations, as well as the various functions and systems, of acquired businesses with our existing operations, functions and systems;
successfully identify and realize potential synergies among acquired and existing business;
retain or hire senior management and other key personnel at acquired businesses; and
successfully manage acquisition-related strain on our management, operations and financial resources.
We may not be successful in addressing these challenges or any other problems encountered in connection with historical and future acquisitions. In addition, the anticipated benefits of one or more acquisitions may not be realized. Also, future acquisitions could result in increased operating losses, dilutive issuances of equity securities and/or the assumption of contingent liabilities. Lastly, the value of goodwill and other intangible assets acquired could be impacted by one or more continuing unfavorable events and/or trends, which could result in significant impairment charges. The occurrence of any these events could have an adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face additional risks in connection with our international operations.
We currently operate businesses under various regional brands in Canada, France, Germany, Austria, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Italy and intend to seek to expand our international presence, both through acquisitions and organic growth.
Operating abroad, particularly in jurisdictions where we have limited experience, exposes us to additional risks, including:
operational and compliance challenges caused by distance, language barriers and cultural differences;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
differing levels (or lack) of social and technological acceptance of online services generally, as well as online home services offerings specifically;
slow or lagging growth in the commercial use and acceptance of the Internet;
foreign currency fluctuations;
restrictions on the transfer of funds among countries and back to the United States and related repatriation costs;
differing and potentially adverse tax laws;
compliance challenges;
competitive environments that favor local businesses;
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limitations on the level of intellectual property protection; and
trade sanctions, political unrest, terrorism, war and epidemics or the threat of any of these events.
The occurrence of any or all of the events described above could adversely affect our international operations, and in turn, our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or may be accused of infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties.
We rely heavily upon trademarks, trade dress and related domain names and logos to market our brands and businesses and to build and maintain brand loyalty and recognition, as well as upon trade secrets and patents.
We rely on a combination of laws and contractual restrictions on access to and use of proprietary information with employees, customers, suppliers, affiliates and others to establish and protect our and their various intellectual property rights. For examples, we have generally registered and continue to apply to register and renew, or secure by contract where appropriate, trademarks and service marks as they are developed and used, and reserve, register and renew domain names as we deem appropriate. We also generally seek to apply for patents or for similar statutory protections as and if we deem appropriate, based on then current facts and circumstances, and will continue to do so in the future. No assurances can be given that these efforts will result in adequate trademark and service mark protection, adequate domain name rights and protections, the issuance of a patent or adequate patent protection against competitors and similar technologies. Third parties could also create new products or methods that achieve similar results without infringing upon patents we own.
Despite these measures, challenges to our intellectual property rights could still arise, third parties could copy or otherwise obtain and use the intellectual property without authorization and/or laws regarding the enforceability of existing intellectual property rights could change in an adverse manner. The occurrence of any of these events could result in the erosion of our various brands and limitations on our ability to control marketing online using our various domain names, as well as impede our ability to effectively compete against competitors with similar technologies, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on our key personnel.
Our future success depends upon our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled, diverse individuals, particularly in the case of senior and executive management. Competition for well-qualified employees across our various businesses is intense and we must attract new (and retain existing) employees to compete effectively. While we have established programs, we may not be able to continue to attract new (and retain existing) key and other employees in the future, especially in the technical fields of engineering and product. In addition, if we do not ensure the effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions (particularly in the case of senior and executive management) across our various businesses, our business, financial condition and results of operations, could be adversely affected.
Launch of consumer financing payment operation could be interrupted as a result of conditions outside of our control.
Our ability to launch a new consumer financing option for our consumers could be negatively affected by conditions outside our control. If capital market conditions have a material negative change, there is a risk that our business partner that administers the consumer financing program may not be able to fulfill its obligations under that agreement. In addition, the tightening of credit markets may restrict the ability and willingness of consumers to make book services in our Marketplace.
Failure to obtain and maintain required licenses or to comply with applicable regulations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be required under certain state and local government regulations to obtain and maintain licenses to perform pre-priced booking services in our Marketplace. Typically, licenses must be renewed annually and may be revoked or suspended for cause at any time. In some jurisdictions, the loss of a license for cause may lead to the loss of licenses in other jurisdictions and could make it more difficult to obtain additional licenses. Although we do not anticipate any material difficulties occurring in the future, the failure to receive or retain a license, or any other required permit, in a particular location, or to continue to qualify for, or renew licenses, could negatively impact our business. We may also spend significant amounts of money and effort to obtain licenses and continued compliance with applicable regulations. If we fail to comply with such licensing and permit regulations, we may be subject to various sanctions and/or penalties and fines or may be required to cease operations in such location until we achieve compliance, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Risks Related to Our Relationship with IAC
IAC controls our company and will have the ability to control the direction of our business.
As of January 31, 2021, IAC owned all of our outstanding Class B common stock, representing approximately 84.3% of our total outstanding shares of capital stock and approximately 98.2% of the total combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock. For so long as IAC owns shares of our capital stock that represent a majority of the combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock, it will be able to control any corporate action that requires a stockholder vote, regardless of the vote of any other stockholder (subject to certain limited exceptions for certain class votes). As a result, IAC has (and we expect will continue to have) the ability to control significant corporate activities, including:
the election of our board of directors (subject to certain provisions of the investor rights agreement between us and IAC) and, through our board of directors, decision-making with respect to our business direction and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers;
acquisitions or dispositions of businesses or assets, mergers or other business combinations;
issuances of shares of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock and Class C common stock and our capital structure generally;
corporate opportunities that may be suitable for us and IAC, subject to the corporate opportunity provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation (as described below);
stock repurchases;
our financing activities, including the issuance of debt securities and/or the incurrence of other indebtedness generally;
the payment of one-time or recurring dividends; and
the number of shares available for issuance under our equity incentive plans.
This voting control will limit the ability of other stockholders to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that stockholders other than IAC do not view as beneficial. This voting control may also discourage transactions involving a change of control of our company, including transactions in which holders of shares of our Class A common stock might otherwise receive a premium for their shares.
Even if IAC owns shares of our capital stock representing less than a majority of the total combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock, so long as IAC owns shares representing a significant percentage of our total combined voting power, IAC will have the ability to substantially influence these significant corporate activities.
In addition, pursuant to the investor rights agreement between us and IAC, IAC has the right to maintain its level of ownership in us to the extent we issue additional shares of our capital stock in the future and, pursuant to the employee matters agreement between us and IAC, IAC may receive payment for certain compensation expenses through the receipt of additional shares of our capital stock. For a more complete summary of our various agreements with IAC, see “Note 15-Related Party Transactions with IAC” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8-Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Until such time as IAC no longer controls or has the ability to substantially influence us, we will continue to face the risks described in this “Risk Factors” section relating to IAC’s control of us and the potential conflicts of interest between us and IAC.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation could prevent us from benefiting from certain corporate opportunities.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation has a “corporate opportunity” provision that requires us to renounce any interests or expectancy in corporate opportunities for both us and IAC. This provision also includes a disclaimer that states that we recognize that: (i) any of our directors or officers who are also officers, directors, employees or other affiliates of IAC or its affiliates (except that we and our subsidiaries are not considered affiliates of IAC or its affiliates for purposes of this provision) and (ii) IAC itself, will have no duty to offer or communicate information regarding such corporate opportunities to us. Generally, neither IAC nor any of our officers or directors who are also officers or directors of IAC or its affiliates will be liable to us or any of our stockholders for breach of any fiduciary duty by reason of the fact that any such person pursues or acquires any corporate opportunity for the account of IAC or any of its affiliates, directs or transfers such corporate opportunity to IAC or any of its affiliates or does not communicate information regarding such corporate opportunity to us. This corporate opportunity provision may exacerbate conflicts of interest between us and IAC because the provision effectively permits any of our directors or officers who also serves as a director or officer of IAC to choose to direct a corporate opportunity to IAC instead of us.
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IAC’s interests may conflict with our interests and the interests of our other stockholders. Conflicts of interest between us and IAC could be resolved in a manner unfavorable to us and our other stockholders.
Various conflicts of interest between us and IAC could arise. As of the date of this report, five of our eleven directors are current directors or executive officers of IAC. Ownership interests of these individuals and IAC in our capital stock and ownership interests of our directors and officers in IAC capital stock, or service by an individual as either a director and/or officer of both companies, could create or appear to create potential conflicts of interest when such individuals are faced with decisions relating to us. These decisions could include:
corporate opportunities;
the impact that operating or capital decisions (including the incurrence of indebtedness) relating to our business may have on IAC's consolidated financial statements and/or current or future indebtedness (including related covenants);
business combinations involving us;
our dividend and stock repurchase policies;
management stock ownership; and
the intercompany agreements and services between us and IAC.
Potential conflicts of interest could also arise if we decide to enter into new commercial arrangements with IAC in the future or in connection with IAC’s desire to enter into new commercial arrangements with third parties. Additionally, IAC may be constrained by the terms of agreements relating to its indebtedness from taking actions, or permitting us to take actions, that may be in our best interest.
Furthermore, disputes may arise between us and IAC relating to our past and ongoing relationships, and these potential conflicts of interest may make it more difficult for us to favorably resolve such disputes, including those related to:
tax, employee benefit, indemnification and other matters arising from the Combination;
the nature, quality and pricing of services IAC agrees to provide to us;
sales or other disposals by IAC of all or a portion of its ownership interest in us; and
business combinations involving us.
We may not be able to resolve any potential conflicts, and even if we do, the resolution may be less favorable to us than if we were dealing with an unaffiliated third-party. While we are controlled by IAC, we may not have the leverage to negotiate amendments to our various agreements with IAC (if required) on terms as favorable to us as those we would negotiate with an unaffiliated third-party.
We rely on exemptions from certain NASDAQ corporate governance requirements that provide protection to stockholders of other companies.
Because IAC owns more than 50% of the combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock, we are a “controlled company” under the Marketplace Rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC (the “Marketplace Rules”). As a “controlled company,” we are exempt from compliance with certain Marketplace Rules related to corporate governance, including the following requirements:
that a majority of our board of directors consists of “independent directors” (as defined in the Marketplace Rules); and
that we have a nominating/governance committee composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities.
Accordingly, for so long as we are a “controlled company” and avail ourselves of these exemptions, our stockholders will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the Marketplace Rules.
IAC’s desire to maintain flexibility with respect to its ability to distribute the shares of our capital stock it holds on a tax-free basis to its stockholders, and its desire to preserve the ability to maintain tax consolidation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, may prevent us from pursuing opportunities to raise capital, acquire other businesses or provide equity incentives to our employees, or otherwise impact our ability to manage our capital structure.
Under current laws, IAC must retain beneficial ownership of at least 80% of our combined voting power and 80% of each class of our non-voting capital stock (if any is outstanding) in order to effect a tax-free distribution of our shares held by IAC to its stockholders. IAC has advised us that it does not have any present intention or plans to undertake such a tax-free distribution. However, IAC does currently intend to use its majority voting interest to retain its ability to engage in such a
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transaction. In addition, IAC must maintain ownership of at least 80% of our outstanding capital stock in order to maintain tax consolidation with us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. IAC has advised us that it currently intends to take such actions, or cause the Company to take such actions, as may be necessary in order to preserve tax consolidation. Each of these intentions may cause IAC not to support transactions that we wish to pursue that involve issuing shares of our capital stock, including for capital-raising purposes, as consideration for an acquisition or as equity incentives to our employees, or otherwise impact our overall capital management strategy. Our inability to pursue such transactions, or any reduced flexibility in the management of our capital structure, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our agreements with IAC will require us to indemnify IAC for certain tax liabilities and may limit our ability to engage in desirable strategic or capital-raising transactions.
Pursuant to our tax sharing agreement with IAC, we generally will be responsible and will be required to indemnify IAC for: (i) all taxes imposed with respect to any consolidated, combined or unitary tax return of IAC or its subsidiaries that includes us or any of our subsidiaries to the extent attributable to us or any of our subsidiaries (excluding certain taxes attributable to Angie’s List and its subsidiaries for taxable periods (or portions thereof) ending on or before the completion of the Combination), as determined under the tax sharing agreement, and (ii) all taxes imposed with respect to any consolidated, combined, unitary or separate tax returns of ours or any of our subsidiaries. To the extent IAC fails to pay taxes imposed with respect to any consolidated, combined or unitary tax return of IAC or one of its subsidiaries that includes us or any of our subsidiaries, the relevant taxing authority could seek to collect such taxes (including taxes for which IAC is responsible under the tax sharing agreement) from us or our subsidiaries.
IAC does not have a present plan or intention to undertake a tax-free spin-off of its interest in us. Under the tax sharing agreement, we generally will be responsible for any taxes and related amounts imposed on IAC or us (or our respective subsidiaries) that arise from the failure of a future spin-off of IAC’s retained interest in us to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Section 368(a)(1)(D) and/or Section 355 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), to the extent that the failure to so qualify is attributable to: (i) a breach of the relevant representations and covenants made by us in the tax sharing agreement (or any representation letter provided in support of any tax opinion or ruling obtained by IAC with respect to the U.S. federal income tax treatment of such spin-off), (ii) an acquisition of our equity securities or assets or (iii) any other action or inaction by us after any such spin-off.
To preserve the tax-free treatment of any potential future spin-off by IAC of its interest in us, the tax sharing agreement restricts us and our subsidiaries, for the two-year period following any such spin-off (except in specific circumstances), from: (i) entering into any transaction pursuant to which shares of our capital stock would be acquired above a certain threshold, (ii) merging, consolidating or liquidating, (iii) selling or transferring assets above certain thresholds, (iv) redeeming or repurchasing stock (with certain exceptions), (v) altering the voting rights of our capital stock, (vi)  actions and inactions that are inconsistent with representations or covenants in any tax opinion or private letter ruling document or (vii) ceasing to engage in any active trade or business as defined in the Code. The indemnity obligations and other limitations under the tax sharing agreement could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Future sales or distributions of shares of our capital stock by IAC could depress the price of our Class A common stock.
IAC has the right to sell or distribute to its stockholders all or a portion of the shares of our capital stock that it holds. Although as of the date of this report IAC has advised us that it does not have any present intention or plans to undertake such a sale or distribution, sales by IAC in the public market or distributions to its stockholders of substantial amounts of our capital stock (shares of Class B common stock or Class A common stock) could depress the price of our Class A common stock. In addition, IAC has the right, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of the shares of our capital stock it holds or to include such shares in other registration statements that we may file. If IAC exercises these registration rights and sells all or a portion of the shares of our capital stock it holds, the price of our Class A common stock could decline.
The services that IAC provides to us may not be sufficient to meet our needs.
We expect IAC to continue to provide us with corporate and shared services related to corporate functions, such as executive oversight, risk management, information technology, accounting, audit, legal, investor relations, tax, treasury and other services in exchange for the fees specified in the services agreement between us and IAC. Since the services agreement automatically renews for one (1) year periods for as long as IAC holds a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock, we may not be able to modify these services in a manner desirable to us as a standalone public company. Although we intend to replace portions of the services currently provided by IAC, we may not be able to perform these services ourselves and/or find appropriate third parties to do so at a reasonable cost (or at costs at or below those charged by IAC), which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our current and future indebtedness could affect our ability to operate our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
As of December 31, 2020, we had total debt outstanding of approximately $500.0 million related our senior notes, $220.0 million under our term loan agreement, and borrowing availability of $250.0 million under our revolving credit facility. The indebtedness outstanding under our term loan agreement is (and indebtedness under our revolving credit facility will be) guaranteed by our wholly owned material domestic subsidiaries and secured by substantially all of our assets and those of our guarantors, subject to certain exceptions. Our term loan agreement and revolving credit facility contain several covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things:
create liens on certain assets;
incur additional indebtedness;
make certain investments and acquisitions;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
sell certain assets;
pay dividends on (or make distributions in respect of) our capital stock or make restricted payments or stock repurchases;
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates; and
place restrictions on distributions from subsidiaries.
Any of these restrictions could limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions and could otherwise restrict how we operate our business. Any failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under the term loan agreement, which if not waived, could cause our lenders to foreclose on the assets we pledged to secure our term loan indebtedness and force us into bankruptcy or liquidation. In addition, a default under our term loan agreement could trigger a cross default under other current of future agreements (including our revolving credit facility).
In addition to the restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business, the terms of our indebtedness could:
limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund working capital needs, acquisitions, capital expenditures, other debt service requirements or for other purposes;
limit our ability to use operating cash flow in other areas of our business because we must dedicate a substantial portion of these funds to service our indebtedness;
limit our ability to compete with other companies who are not as highly leveraged;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions, developing properties or exploiting business opportunities; and
limit our ability to react to changing general economic conditions and market conditions in our industry.
Subject to certain restrictions, we and our subsidiaries may incur additional unsecured and secured indebtedness. If additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions is significant, the risks described above could increase.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness.
Our ability to satisfy our debt obligations will depend upon, among other things:
our future financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control; and
our future ability to borrow under our revolving credit facility, the availability of which will depend on, among other things, our ability to comply with the covenants governing our indebtedness.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow from our operations and/or borrow under our revolving credit facility in amounts sufficient to meet our scheduled debt obligations. If so, we could be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or seek additional capital in a manner that complies with the terms (including certain restrictions and limitations) of our current indebtedness. If these efforts do not generate sufficient funds to meet our scheduled debt obligations, we would need to seek additional financing and/or negotiate with our lenders to restructure or refinance our indebtedness. Our ability to do so would depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any such financing, restructuring or refinancing could be on less favorable terms than those governing our current indebtedness and would need to comply with the terms (including certain restrictions and limitations) of our existing indebtedness.
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Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk.
As of December 31, 2020, we have $220.0 million of indebtedness outstanding under our term loan, which bears interest at variable rates. Indebtedness under our term loan is (and any indebtedness under our revolving credit facility will be) at variable interest rates, which exposes us to interest rate risk. For details regarding interest rates applicable to the indebtedness outstanding under our term loan as of December 31, 2020, see “Item 7A-Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
The multiclass structure of our capital stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with IAC and limiting the ability of holders of our Class A common stock to influence corporate matters.
Each share of our Class B common stock has ten votes per share and each share of our Class A common stock has one vote per share. As of January 31, 2021, IAC owned all of the shares of our outstanding Class B common stock, representing economic and voting interests in us of approximately 84.4% and 98.2%, respectively. Due to the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B common stock and Class A common stock, IAC (and any future holders of our Class B common stock, collectively) will continue to control a substantial majority of the combined voting power of our capital stock. This concentrated control will significantly limit the ability of holders of our Class A common stock to influence matters submitted to our stockholders for approval.
The difference in the voting rights of our Class B common stock and Class A common stock may harm the value and liquidity of our Class A common stock.
This difference in voting rights between our Class B common stock and Class A common stock could harm the value of our Class A common stock to the extent that any investor or potential future purchaser of our Class A common stock ascribes value to the right of the holders of our Class B common stock to ten votes per share. The existence of two classes of common stock with different voting rights could result in less liquidity for our Class A common stock than if there were only one class of common stock, which could adversely affect the price of our Class A common stock.
We do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends and we currently have no plans to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock and/or Class B common stock. Instead, we currently anticipate that all of our future earnings will be retained to support our operations and finance the growth and development of our business. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made by our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including:
our historic and projected financial condition, liquidity and results of operations;
our capital levels and needs;
tax considerations;
any acquisitions that we may consider;
statutory and regulatory prohibitions and other limitations;
the terms of any credit agreement or other borrowing arrangements that restrict our ability to pay cash dividends, including our term loan agreement and revolving credit facility;
general economic conditions; and
other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
We are not obligated to pay dividends on our Class A common stock or Class B common stock. Consequently, investors may need to rely on sales on their Class A common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.
The Delaware General Corporation Law and certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company and/or changes in our management.
The Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our Company and/or changes in our management that our stockholders may deem advantageous, including provisions that: (i) authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, which our board of directors could issue to discourage a takeover attempt; (ii) limit the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders; and (iii) provide that our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws.
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Any provision of the DGCL or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a related premium for their Class A common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.
The choice of forum provision in our amended and restated bylaws could limit the ability of our stockholders to obtain the judicial forum of their choice for certain disputes.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, a state court within the State of Delaware (or, if no state court located within Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for all of the following actions: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim for (or based on breach of) fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees pursuant to the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, (iv) any action asserting a claim relating to or involving us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine or (v) any action asserting an “internal corporate claim” (as defined under the DGCL). This choice of forum provision may limit the ability of our stockholders to bring claims in a judicial forum that they find favorable for disputes with us or our current or former directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find our choice of forum provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we could incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our Class A common stock is currently ineligible for inclusion in certain stock market indices which may adversely affect the trading market for our Class A common stock.
Policies adopted by certain operators of U.S. stock market indices exclude equity securities of companies with multiple classes of outstanding publicly traded equity securities and/or companies with outstanding classes of publicly traded equity securities that have no voting rights (or “low” voting rights relative to another outstanding class of equity securities) from their stock indices and similar policies may be implemented by other operators of stock market indices in the future. Given the multiclass structure of our capital stock and IAC’s control over us, our Class A common stock is not currently eligible for inclusion in the S&P Composite 1500 (and its three component indices) and any indices managed by FTSE Russell and, as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track these indices will not be investing in our stock. Exclusion from these stock market indices (and any others in the future) could make our Class A common stock less attractive which could adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Properties
We believe that the facilities for our management and operations are generally adequate for our current and near-term future needs. Our facilities, most of which are leased in the United States and abroad, consist of executive and administrative offices, sales offices and data centers. We do not anticipate any future problems renewing or obtaining suitable leases for us or any of our businesses. We currently lease approximately 152,000 square feet of office for our corporate headquarters, HomeAdvisor business and administrative and sales force personnel in Denver, Colorado.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
Overview
In the ordinary course of business, the Company and its subsidiaries are (or may become) parties to claims, suits, regulatory and government investigations, and other proceedings involving property, personal injury, intellectual property, privacy, tax, labor and employment, competition, commercial disputes, consumer protection and other claims, as well as stockholder derivative actions, class action lawsuits and other matters. Such claims, suits, regulatory and government investigations, and other proceedings could result in fines, civil or criminal penalties, or other adverse consequences. The amounts that may be recovered in such matters may be subject to insurance coverage. Although the results of legal proceedings and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is currently a party to any legal proceedings the outcome of which, we believe, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. However, the outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties.
The litigation matter described below involves issues or claims that may be of particular interest to our stockholders, regardless of whether this matter may be material to our financial position or operations based upon the standard set forth in the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
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Service Professional Class Action Litigation against HomeAdvisor
In July 2016, a putative class action, Airquip, Inc. et al. v. HomeAdvisor, Inc. et al., No. 1:16-cv-1849, was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado. The complaint, as amended in November 2016, alleges that our HomeAdvisor business engages in certain deceptive practices affecting the service professionals who join its network, including charging them for substandard customer leads and failing to disclose certain charges. The complaint seeks certification of a nationwide class consisting of all HomeAdvisor service professionals since October 2012, asserts claims for fraud, breach of implied contract, unjust enrichment and violation of the federal RICO statute and the Colorado Consumer Protection Act (“CCPA”), and seeks injunctive relief and damages in an unspecified amount. In December 2016, HomeAdvisor filed a motion to dismiss the RICO and CCPA claims. In September 2017, the court issued an order granting the motion and dismissing those claims. In October 2017, HomeAdvisor filed an answer denying the material allegations of the remaining claims in the complaint. In May 2018, the plaintiffs filed a motion for leave to file a second amended complaint that would add nine new named plaintiffs, five new defendants (including ANGI Homeservices), and 55 new claims, most of them for various alleged violations of the laws of nine separate states. In June 2018, HomeAdvisor opposed the motion on grounds including that it was filed more than one year after the court’s deadline to amend pleadings.

In July 2018, the plaintiffs’ counsel filed a separate putative class action in the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado, Costello et al. v. HomeAdvisor, Inc. et al., No. 1:18-cv-1802, on behalf of the same nine proposed new plaintiffs in the Airquip case, naming as defendants HomeAdvisor, ANGI Homeservices and IAC (as well as an unrelated company), and asserting 45 claims largely duplicative of those asserted in the proposed second amended complaint in the Airquip case. In November 2018, the judge presiding over the Airquip case issued an order consolidating the two cases to proceed before him under the caption In re HomeAdvisor, Inc. Litigation.

In January 2019, the plaintiffs renewed their motion for leave to file a consolidated second amended complaint, naming as defendants, in addition to HomeAdvisor, ANGI Homeservices and IAC, CraftJack, Inc. (a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company and thus, an entity affiliated with HomeAdvisor) and two unrelated entities. In February 2019, the defendants opposed the motion on various grounds. In September 2019, the court issued an order granting the plaintiffs’ motion. In October and December 2019, the four defendants affiliated with HomeAdvisor filed motions to dismiss certain claims in the amended complaint. On September 29, 2020, the court issued an order granting in part and denying in part the defendants’ motions to dismiss. Discovery in the case is well underway and the issue of class certification remains to be litigated.
The Company believes that the allegations in this lawsuit are without merit and will continue to defend vigorously against them.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters
Our Class A common stock is quoted on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the ticker symbol “ANGI.” There is no established public trading market for our Class B common stock.
As of January 29, 2021, there were 30 holders of record of our Class A common stock. Because the substantial majority of the outstanding shares of our Class A common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are not able to estimate the total number of beneficial shareholders represented by these record holders. As of January 29, 2021, there was one holder of record and beneficial shareholder of our Class B common stock.
Dividends
We do not currently expect that any cash or other dividends will be paid to holders of our Class A or Class B common stock in the near future. Any future cash dividend or other dividend declarations are subject to the determination of the Company’s Board of Directors.
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Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
There were no unregistered sales of our capital stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2020.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth purchases by the Company of its Class A common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2020:
Period

(a)
Total Number of Shares Purchased

(b)
Average Price Paid Per Share

(c)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of
Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs(1)
(d)
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs(2)
October 2020— $— — 20,053,530 
November 2020— $— — 20,053,530 
December 2020781,969 $11.86 781,969 19,271,561 
Total781,969 $11.86 781,969 19,271,561 
________________________________________
(1)Reflects repurchases made pursuant to the share repurchase authorizations previously announced in March 2020 and February 2019.
(2)Represents the total number of shares of Class A common stock that remained available for repurchase as of December 31, 2020 pursuant to the March 2020 and February 2019 share repurchase authorizations. The Company may repurchase shares pursuant to this share repurchase authorization over an indefinite period of time in the open market and in privately negotiated transactions, depending on those factors Company management deems relevant at any particular time, including, without limitation, market conditions, share price and future outlook.
From January 1, 2021 through February 4, 2021, the Company repurchased an additional approximately 0.4 million shares at an average price of $11.85 per share. As of February 4, 2021, there were approximately 18.9 million shares remaining in the March 2020 and February 2019 share repurchase authorizations.
Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
Not required.
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
ANGI Homeservices Inc. (“ANGI Homeservices,” the “Company,” “ANGI,” “we,” “our,” or “us”) connects quality home service professionals across 500 different categories, from repairing and remodeling to cleaning and landscaping, with consumers. Over 240,000 domestic service professionals actively sought consumer matches, completed jobs or advertised work through ANGI Homeservices’ platforms and consumers turned to at least one of our brands to find a professional for approximately 32 million projects during the year ended December 31, 2020. We have established category-transforming products with brands such as HomeAdvisor, Angie’s List, and Handy.
The HomeAdvisor digital marketplace service connects consumers with service professionals nationwide for home repair, maintenance and improvement projects. HomeAdvisor provides consumers with tools and resources to help them find local, pre-screened and customer-rated service professionals, as well as instantly book appointments with those professionals online or connect with them by telephone. On October 19, 2018, the Company acquired Handy Technologies, Inc. (“Handy”), a leading platform for connecting individuals looking for household services (primarily cleaning and handyman services) with top-quality, pre-screened independent service professionals. We refer to the HomeAdvisor and Handy businesses in the United States as the (“Marketplace”). The Company also owns and operates Angie’s List, Inc. (“Angie’s List”), which connects consumers with service professionals for local services through a nationwide online directory of service professionals in over 700 service categories and provides consumers with valuable tools, services and content, including verified reviews, to help them research, shop and hire for local services. We also own and operate Fixd Repair, mHelpDesk, and CraftJack.
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The Company has two operating segments: (i) North America (United States and Canada), which includes HomeAdvisor, Angie’s List, Handy, Fixd Repair, mHelpDesk, HomeStars, and CraftJack and (ii) Europe, which includes Travaux, MyHammer, MyBuilder, Werkspot and Instapro.
In the U.S., the Company markets its services to consumers through search engine marketing, television advertising and affiliate agreements with third parties. The Company also markets its services to consumers through email, digital display advertisements, partnerships with other contextually related websites and, to a lesser extent, through relationships with certain retailers, direct mail and radio advertising. The Company markets subscription packages and time-based advertising to service professionals primarily through its sales force, as well as through search engine marketing, digital media advertising and direct relationships with trade associations and manufacturers. We have made, and expect to continue to make, substantial investments in digital and traditional advertising (with continued expansion into new and existing digital platforms) to consumers and service professionals to promote our products and services and to drive traffic to our various platforms and service professionals.
Defined Terms and Operating Metrics:
Unless otherwise indicated or as the context otherwise requires certain terms used in this annual report, which include the principal operating metrics we use in managing our business, as defined below:
Marketplace Revenue primarily includes revenue from the HomeAdvisor and Handy domestic marketplaces, including consumer connection revenue for consumer matches, revenue from pre-priced jobs sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms and service professional membership subscription revenue. It excludes revenue from Angie’s List and HomeStars. Effective January 1, 2020, Fixd Repair has been moved to Marketplace from Advertising and Other and prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Advertising and Other Revenue includes Angie’s List revenue (revenue from service professionals under contract for advertising and membership subscription fees from consumers) as well as revenue from mHelpDesk and HomeStars.
Marketplace Service Requests are fully completed and submitted domestic customer service requests to HomeAdvisor and includes pre-priced jobs sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms.
Marketplace Monetized Transactions are fully completed and submitted domestic customer service requests to HomeAdvisor that were matched to and paid for by a service professional and includes pre-priced jobs sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms in the period.
Marketplace Transacting Service Professionals (“Marketplace Transacting SPs”) are the number of HomeAdvisor and Handy domestic service professionals that paid for consumer matches or performed a job sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms during the most recent quarter.
Advertising Service Professionals (“Advertising SPs”) are the total number of Angie’s List service professionals under contract for advertising at the end of the period.
Senior Notes - On August 20, 2020, ANGI Group, LLC (“ANGI Group”), a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, issued $500.0 million of its 3.875% Senior Notes due August 15, 2028, with interest payable February 15 and August 15 of each year, commencing February 15, 2021.
ANGI Group Term Loan - due November 5, 2023. Pursuant to the joinder agreement entered into on August 12, 2020, ANGI Group became the successor borrower under the ANGI Group Term Loan and ANGI Homeservices Inc.’s obligations thereunder were terminated. The outstanding balance of the ANGI Group Term Loan as of December 31, 2020 is $220.0 million and quarterly principal payments are required through maturity. In December 2020, ANGI Group prepaid its required quarterly principal payments for the year ending December 31, 2021 in the aggregate amount of $13.8 million. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the ANGI Group Term Loan bore interest at LIBOR plus 2.00% and 1.50%, respectively. The interest rate was 2.16% and 3.25% at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
ANGI Group Revolving Facility - The ANGI Group $250.0 million revolving credit facility expires on November 5, 2023. Pursuant to the joinder agreement entered into on August 12, 2020, ANGI Group became the successor borrower under the ANGI Group Revolving Facility and ANGI Homeservices Inc.’s obligations thereunder were
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terminated. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no outstanding borrowings under the ANGI Group Revolving Facility. The ANGI Group Revolving Facility and ANGI Group Term Loan are collectively referred to as the ANGI Group Credit Agreement.

Components of Results of Operations
Sources of Revenue
Marketplace Revenue is primarily derived from (i) consumer connection revenue, which comprises fees paid by HomeAdvisor service professionals for consumer matches (regardless of whether the service professional ultimately provides the requested service) and revenue from completed jobs sourced through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms, and (ii) HomeAdvisor service professional membership subscription fees. Consumer connection revenue varies based upon several factors, including the service requested, product experience offered and geographic location of service. Advertising and Other Revenue is primarily derived from (i) sales of time-based website, mobile and call center advertising to service professionals and (ii) membership subscription fees from consumers.
Prior to January 1, 2020, Handy recorded revenue on a net basis. Effective January 1, 2020, we modified the Handy terms and conditions so that Handy, rather than the service professional, has the contractual relationship with the consumer to deliver the service and Handy, rather than the consumer, has the contractual relationship with the service professional. Consumers request services and pay for such services directly through the Handy platform and then Handy fulfills the request with independently established home services providers engaged in a trade, occupation and/or business that customarily provides such services. This change in contractual terms requires gross revenue accounting treatment effective January 1, 2020. Also, in the case of certain tasks, HomeAdvisor provides a pre-priced product offering, pursuant to which consumers can request services through a HomeAdvisor platform and pay HomeAdvisor for the services directly. HomeAdvisor then fulfills the request with independently established home services providers engaged in a trade, occupation and/or business that customarily provides such services. Revenue from HomeAdvisor’s pre-priced product offering is also recorded on a gross basis effective January 1, 2020. The change to gross revenue reporting for Handy and HomeAdvisor’s pre-priced product offering, effective January 1, 2020, resulted in an increase in revenue of $73.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Operating Costs and Expenses:
Cost of revenue - consists primarily of payments made to independent service professionals who perform work contracted under pre-priced arrangements through the HomeAdvisor and Handy platforms, credit card processing fees, compensation expense and other employee-related costs for service work performed, and hosting fees.
Selling and marketing expense - consists primarily of advertising expenditures, which include online marketing, including fees paid to search engines, offline marketing, which is primarily television advertising, and partner-related payments to those who direct traffic to our brands, compensation expense (including stock-based compensation expense) and other employee-related costs for our sales force and marketing personnel, and facilities costs.
General and administrative expense - consists primarily of compensation expense (including stock-based compensation expense) and other employee-related costs for personnel engaged in executive management, finance, legal, tax, human resources and customer service functions, fees for professional services (including transaction-related costs related to acquisitions), provision for credit losses, software license and maintenance costs and facilities costs. Our customer service function includes personnel who provide support to our service professionals and consumers.
Product development expense - consists primarily of compensation expense (including stock-based compensation expense) and other employee-related costs that are not capitalized for personnel engaged in the design, development, testing and enhancement of product offerings and related technology, software license and maintenance costs and facilities costs.
Non-GAAP Financial Measure
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”) is a non-GAAP financial measure. See “Principles of Financial Reporting” for the definition of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net earnings attributable to ANGI Homeservices Inc. shareholders to operating (loss) income to consolidated Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
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The following discussion should be read in conjunction with Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. For a discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018, please refer to Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020.
COVID-19 Update
The impact on the Company from the COVID-19 outbreak, which has been declared a “pandemic” by the World Health Organization, has been varied. The extent to which developments related to the COVID-19 outbreak and measures designed to curb its spread continue to impact the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations will depend on future developments, all of which are highly uncertain and many of which are beyond the Company’s control, including the speed of contagion, the development and implementation of effective preventative measures and possible treatments, the scope of governmental and other restrictions on travel, discretionary services (including those provided by certain of our service professionals) and other activity, and public reactions to these developments. For example, these developments and measures have resulted in rapid and adverse changes to the operating environment in which we do business, as well as significant uncertainty concerning the near and long term economic ramifications of the COVID-19 outbreak, which have adversely impacted our ability to forecast our results and respond in a timely and effective manner to trends related to the COVID-19 outbreak. The longer the global outbreak and measures designed to curb the spread of the virus continue to adversely affect levels of consumer confidence, discretionary spending and the willingness of consumers to interact with other consumers, vendors and service providers face-to-face (and in turn, adversely affect demand for the Company’s various products and services), the greater the adverse impact is likely to be on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations and the more limited will be the Company’s ability to try and make up for delayed or lost revenues.
When COVID-19 first impacted North America and Europe in the spring of 2020, the Company experienced a decline in demand for service requests, driven primarily by decreases in demand in certain categories of jobs (particularly discretionary indoor projects). Toward the end of the spring of 2020, the Company experienced a rebound in service requests, exceeding pre-COVID-19 growth levels, driven by increased demand from homeowners who spent more time at home due to measures taken to reduce the spread of COVID-19. The Company continued to experience strong demand for home services in the second half of 2020. However, many service professionals’ businesses have been adversely impacted by labor and material constraints and many service professionals have limited capacity to take on new business, which has negatively impacted the Company's ability to monetize this increased level of service requests.
In addition, North America, which represents 95% of the Company’s revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020, experienced a significant resurgence of the COVID-19 virus with record levels of infections being reported during the fourth quarter of 2020 and continuing into the first quarter of 2021. Europe, which is the second largest market for the Company’s products and services, has also seen a dramatic resurgence in COVID-19. This resurgence and the measures designed to curb its spread could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Revenue
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Amounts in thousands)
Revenue:
Marketplace:
Consumer connection revenue$1,054,660 $141,127 15%$913,533 
Service professional membership subscription revenue50,975 (12,897)(20)%63,872 
Other revenue25,685 10,422 68%15,263 
Total Marketplace Revenue1,131,320 138,652 14%992,668 
Advertising and Other Revenue264,108 6,884 3%257,224 
North America1,395,428 145,536 12%1,249,892 
Europe72,497 (3,816)(5)%76,313 
Total Revenue$1,467,925 $141,720 11%$1,326,205 
Percentage of Total Revenue:
North America95 %94 %
Europe%%
Total Revenue100 %100 %
Years Ended December 31,
2020Change% Change2019
(Amounts in thousands)
Operating metrics:
Marketplace Service Requests
32,412 5,036 18 %27,376 
Marketplace Monetized Transactions16,672 604 %16,068 
Marketplace Transacting SPs208 22 12 %186 
Advertising SPs39 %37 
North America revenue increased $145.5 million, or 12%, driven by an increase in Marketplace Revenue of $138.7 million or 14%, in addition to an increase of $6.9 million, or 3%, in Advertising and Other Revenue. The increase in Marketplace Revenue was primarily due to an increase in consumer connection revenue of $141.1 million, or 15%, which was driven by an 18% increase in Marketplace Service Requests to 32.4 million resulting in a 4% increase in Marketplace Monetized Transactions up to 16.7 million, and an increase in revenue of $73.8 million from the change to gross revenue reporting for Handy and HomeAdvisor’s pre-priced product offering, effective January 1, 2020.
Europe revenue decreased $3.8 million, or 5%, due primarily to lower monetization from transitioning the business in France to a common European technology platform with the businesses in the Netherlands and Italy, which began in early February 2020, partially offset by the favorable impact of the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to the Euro and British Pound.

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Cost of revenue
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation shown separately below)$173,281 $126,788 NM$46,493 
As a percentage of revenue 12%4%
________________________
NM = Not meaningful
North America cost of revenue increased $126.8 million, due primarily to the change from net to gross revenue reporting for Handy and HomeAdvisor's pre-priced product offering effective January 1, 2020, as well as growth of the pre-priced product offering itself.
Selling and marketing expense
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Selling and marketing expense $762,590 $29,367 4%$733,223 
As a percentage of revenue 52%55%
North America selling and marketing expense increased $34.2 million, or 5%, driven by increases of $23.1 million in compensation expense, $7.1 million in outsourced personnel and consulting costs, $6.1 million in advertising expense and $1.5 million software license and maintenance costs, partially offset by a decrease of $3.8 million in travel related expenses resulting from the impact of COVID-19. The increase in compensation expense was due primarily to increased commission expense. The increase in outsourced personnel and consulting costs was due primarily to various sales initiatives at Handy. Advertising expense increased due primarily to an increase in online marketing costs as the proportion of service requests from Google paid traffic increased. The Company continues to benefit from the search engine marketing strategy that was implemented in the second half of 2019, which focuses on the lifetime profitability rather than the cost of each service request. This increase in online marketing was partially offset by a decrease in television spend resulting from cost cutting initiatives due to the impact of COVID-19.
Europe selling and marketing expense decreased $4.8 million, or 11%, driven by decreases in advertising expense of $2.8 million and compensation expense of $1.5 million. The decrease in advertising expense is due, in part, to mitigating the negative impact of COVID-19 on revenue. The decrease in compensation expense is due primarily to a reduction in sales force headcount associated with the platform migration in France, partially offset by severance cost associated with headcount reductions in France.
General and administrative expense
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
General and administrative expense $374,096 $25,849 7%$348,247 
As a percentage of revenue 25%26%
North America general and administrative expense increased $25.1 million, or 8%, due primarily to increases of $13.9 million in the provision for credit losses due to higher Marketplace Revenue, the impact from COVID-19 on expected credit losses and anticipated losses from Advertising service professionals, $13.9 million in compensation expense and $5.0 million in professional fees, partially offset by decreases of $3.1 million in travel related expenses resulting from the impact of COVID-19 and $2.4 million in software license and maintenance costs. The increase in compensation expense is due primarily to an increase of $17.2 million in stock-based compensation expense, partially offset by a decrease of $6.0 million in salary expense resulting from reduced headcount. The increase in stock-based compensation expense is due primarily to the issuance of new equity awards since 2019, a modification charge of $14.1 million related to the departure of the president and chief operating officer of the Company in December 2020, and the reversal of $7.3 million in cumulative expense in 2019 related to certain performance-based awards that did not vest. The increase in professional fees is due primarily to an increase in legal fees and
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outsourced personnel costs. The increase in outsourced personnel costs is due primarily to an increase in call volume related to our customer service function.
Europe general and administrative expense increased $0.7 million, or 3%, due primarily to an increase of $1.2 million in compensation expense resulting from severance costs associated with headcount reductions in France and an increase of $0.1 million in the provision for credit losses due, in part, from the impact of COVID-19 on expected credit losses, partially offset by a $0.6 million in travel related expenses resulting from the impact of COVID-19.
Product development expense
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Product development expense $68,803 $4,603 7%$64,200 
As a percentage of revenue 5%5%
North America product development expense increased $4.0 million, or 7%, due primarily to increases in compensation expense of $3.0 million and software license and maintenance costs of $0.9 million.
Europe product development expense increased $0.6 million, or 6%, due primarily to an increase of $0.8 million in compensation expense due primarily to increased headcount.
Depreciation
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Depreciation $52,621 $12,706 32%$39,915 
As a percentage of revenue 4%3%
North America depreciation increased $11.0 million, or 29%, due primarily to continued growth, including the development of capitalized software to support our products and services, partially offset by a decrease in leasehold improvements.
Europe depreciation increased $1.7 million, or 69%, due primarily to continued growth, including the development of capitalized software to support products and services.
Operating (loss) income
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
North America$4,811 $(44,156)(90)%$48,967 
Europe$(11,179)(857)(8)%(10,322)
Total$(6,368)$(45,013)NM$38,645 
As a percentage of revenue —%3%
North America operating income decreased $44.2 million, due to the decrease in Adjusted EBITDA of $29.3 million, described below, and increases of $15.3 million in stock-based compensation expense and $11.0 million in depreciation, partially offset by a decrease of $11.5 million in amortization of intangibles. The increase in stock-based compensation expense was due primarily to the issuance of new equity awards since 2019 and the factors described above in the general and administrative expense discussion. The increase in depreciation was due primarily to the development of capitalized software to support our products and services, partially offset by a decrease in leasehold improvements. The decrease in amortization of intangibles was due primarily to lower expense as certain intangible assets became fully amortized in 2019 and 2020.
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Europe operating loss increased $0.9 million or 8%, due to an increase in Adjusted EBITDA loss of $0.2 million, described below, and decreases of $1.1 million in amortization of intangibles and $0.1 million in stock-based compensation expense.
At December 31, 2020, there is $77.2 million of unrecognized compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to all equity-based awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 2.2 years.
Adjusted EBITDA
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
North America$178,854 $(29,338)(14)%$208,192 
Europe(6,050)(155)(3)%(5,895)
Total$172,804 $(29,493)(15)%$202,297 
As a percentage of revenue 12%15%
For a reconciliation of net earnings attributable to ANGI Homeservices Inc. shareholders to operating (loss) income to consolidated Adjusted EBITDA, see “Principles of Financial Reporting.” For a reconciliation of operating (loss) income to Adjusted EBITDA for the Company’s reportable segments, see “Note 12—Segment Information” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
North America Adjusted EBITDA decreased $29.3 million, or 14%, to $178.9 million, despite higher revenue, due primarily to an increases of $126.9 million in cost of revenue and $13.9 million in the provision for credit losses due primarily to the factors described above in the general and administrative expense discussion.
Europe Adjusted EBITDA loss increased $0.2 million, or 3%, to $6.1 million due primarily to the decrease of $3.8 million in revenue and an increase in the provision for credit losses of $0.1 million, partially offset by decreases in advertising expense of $2.8 million and travel related expenses resulting from the impact of COVID-19 of $1.0 million.
Interest expense
Interest expense relates to interest on the Senior Notes and Term Loan and commitment fees on the undrawn Revolving Facility.
For a detailed description of long-term debt, net see “Note 7—Long-term Debt” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Interest expense$14,178 $2,685 23%$11,493 
Interest expense increased primarily due to the issuance of the Senior Notes in August 2020, partially offset by a decrease in interest expense on the Term Loan due primarily to lower interest rates and the decrease in the average outstanding balance of the Term Loan compared to the prior year period.
Other income, net
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Other income, net $1,218 $(5,276)(81)%$6,494 
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Other income, net in 2020 principally includes interest income of $1.7 million, partially offset by a $0.2 million mark-to-market charge for an indemnification claim related to the Handy acquisition that was settled in ANGI shares held in escrow.
Other income, net in 2019 principally included interest income of $8.0 million and net foreign currency exchange gains of $0.6 million, partially offset by a $1.8 million mark-to-market charge for an indemnification claim related to the Handy acquisition that was settled in ANGI shares held in escrow in 2020.
Income tax benefit
Years Ended December 31,
2020$ Change% Change2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Income tax benefit$15,168 $13,500 NM$1,668 
Effective income tax rate NMNM
For further details of income tax matters, see “Note 3—Income Taxes” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
In 2020, the income tax benefit was due primarily to a reduction to deferred taxes due to the true-up of the state tax rate of an indefinite-lived intangible asset, a change in judgement about the valuation allowance at the beginning of the year, and excess tax benefits generated by the exercise and vesting of stock-based awards.
In 2019, the income tax benefit, despite pre-tax income, was due primarily to excess tax benefits generated by the exercise and vesting of stock-based awards.
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PRINCIPLES OF FINANCIAL REPORTING
We report Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental measure to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). This measure is one of the primary metrics by which we evaluate the performance of our businesses, on which our internal budgets are based and by which management is compensated. We believe that investors should have access to, and we are obligated to provide, the same set of tools that we use in analyzing our results. This non-GAAP measure should be considered in addition to results prepared in accordance with GAAP, but should not be considered a substitute for or superior to GAAP results. We endeavor to compensate for the limitations of the non-GAAP measure presented by providing the comparable GAAP measure with equal or greater prominence and descriptions of the reconciling items, including quantifying such items, to derive the non-GAAP measure. We encourage investors to examine the reconciling adjustments between the GAAP and non-GAAP measure, which we discuss below.
Definition of Non-GAAP Measure
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”) is defined as operating income excluding: (1) stock-based compensation expense; (2) depreciation; and (3) acquisition-related items consisting of amortization of intangible assets and impairments of goodwill and intangible assets, if applicable. We believe this measure is useful for analysts and investors as this measure allows a more meaningful comparison between our performance and that of our competitors. The above items are excluded from our Adjusted EBITDA measure because these items are non-cash in nature. Adjusted EBITDA has certain limitations because it excludes the impact of these expenses.
The following table reconciles net (loss) earnings attributable to ANGI Homeservices Inc. shareholders to operating (loss) income to consolidated Adjusted EBITDA:
 Years Ended December 31,
 20202019
 (In thousands)
Net (loss) earnings attributable to ANGI Homeservices Inc. shareholders$(6,283)$34,829 
Add back:
Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests 2,123 485 
Income tax benefit(15,168)(1,668)
Other income, net (1,218)(6,494)
Interest expense14,178 11,493 
Operating (loss) income(6,368)38,645 
Add back:
Stock-based compensation expense83,649 68,255 
Depreciation 52,621 39,915 
Amortization of intangibles 42,902 55,482 
Adjusted EBITDA$172,804 $202,297 
For a reconciliation of operating (loss) income to Adjusted EBITDA for the Company’s reportable segments, see “Note 12—Segment Information” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Non-Cash Expenses That Are Excluded From Our Non-GAAP Measure
Stock-based compensation expense consists principally of expense associated with the grants, including unvested grants assumed in acquisitions, of stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), stock options, performance-based RSUs (“PSUs”) and market-based awards. These expenses are not paid in cash and we view the economic costs of stock-based awards to be the dilution to our share base; we also include the related shares in our fully diluted shares outstanding for GAAP earnings per share using the treasury stock method. PSUs and market-based awards are included only to the extent the applicable performance condition(s) have been met (assuming the end of the reporting period is the end of the contingency period). The Company is currently settling all stock-based awards on a net basis and remits the required tax-withholding amounts from its current funds.
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Depreciation is a non-cash expense relating to our capitalized software, leasehold improvements and equipment and is computed using the straight-line method to allocate the cost of depreciable assets to operations over their estimated useful lives, or, in the case of leasehold improvements, the lease term, if shorter.
Amortization of intangible assets and impairments of goodwill and intangible assets are non-cash expenses related primarily to acquisitions. At the time of an acquisition, the identifiable definite-lived intangible assets of the acquired company, such as service professional relationships, technology, memberships, customer lists and user base, and trade names, are valued and amortized over their estimated lives. Value is also assigned to acquired indefinite-lived intangible assets, which comprise trade names and trademarks, and goodwill that are not subject to amortization. An impairment is recorded when the carrying value of an intangible asset or goodwill exceeds its fair value. We believe that intangible assets represent costs incurred by the acquired company to build value prior to acquisition and the related amortization and impairments of intangible assets or goodwill, if applicable, are not ongoing costs of doing business.
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FINANCIAL POSITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Financial Position
December 31,
20202019
(In thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents and marketable debt securities:
United States
$793,679 $377,648 
All other countries
19,026 12,917 
Total cash and cash equivalents812,705 390,565 
Marketable securities (United States)49,995 — 
Total cash and cash equivalents and marketable debt securities$862,700 $390,565 
Long-term debt:
Senior Notes$500,000 $— 
Term Loan$220,000 $247,500 
Total long-term debt720,000 247,500 
Less: current portion of Term Loan— 13,750 
Less: unamortized debt issuance costs7,723 1,804 
Total long-term debt, net$712,277 $231,946 
The Company’s international cash can be repatriated without significant tax consequences.
Cash Flow Information
In summary, the Company’s cash flows are as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
20202019
(In thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities $188,419 $214,161 
Investing activities (103,954)(40,633)
Financing activities 337,053 (121,532)
Net cash provided by operating activities consists of earnings adjusted for non-cash items and the effect of changes in working capital. Non-cash adjustments include stock-based compensation expense, provision for credit losses, amortization of intangibles, deferred income taxes, depreciation, and (gain) loss from the sale of a business.
2020
Adjustments to earnings consist primarily of $83.6 million of stock-based compensation expense, $78.2 million of provision for credit losses, $52.6 million of depreciation, and $42.9 million of amortization of intangibles. The decrease from changes in working capital consists primarily of an increase in accounts receivable of $79.8 million, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable and other liabilities of $17.2 million, and a decrease in other assets of $6.0 million. The increase in accounts receivable is primarily due to revenue growth in North America. The increase in accounts payable and other liabilities is due primarily to an increase in accrued advertising and related payables, and accrued compensation costs due, in part, to the deferral of payroll tax payments under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act.
Net cash used in investing activities includes purchases of marketable debt securities of $100.0 million, capital expenditures of $52.5 million, primarily related to investments in the development of capitalized software to support the Company’s products and services, $2.3 million related to the acquisition of a business, partially offset by $50.0 million of proceeds from maturities of marketable debt securities, and $0.7 million of net proceeds received in 2020 related to the December 31, 2018 sale of Felix.
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Net cash provided by financing activities includes $500.0 million of proceeds from the issuance of the ANGI Group Senior Notes and a $3.1 million distribution from IAC pursuant to the tax sharing agreement, net of $63.7 million for the repurchase of 8.5 million of ANGI common stock, on a settlement date basis, at an average price of $7.47 per share, $64.1 million for the payment of withholding taxes on behalf of employees for stock-based awards that were net settled, $27.5 million of principal payments on the Term Loan, including prepayment of the $13.8 million of principal payments that were otherwise due in 2021, $6.5 million of debt issuance costs, and $4.3 million for the purchase of redeemable noncontrolling interests.

2019
Adjustments to earnings consist primarily of $68.3 million of stock-based compensation expense, $64.3 million of bad debt expense, $55.5 million of amortization of intangibles, and $39.9 million of depreciation. The decrease from changes in working capital consists primarily of an increase in accounts receivable of $79.0 million and an increase in accounts payable and other liabilities of $13.6 million, and a decrease in other assets of $13.4 million. The increase in accounts receivable is primarily due to revenue growth in North America. The increase in accounts payable and other liabilities is primarily due to an increase in accrued advertising and related payables. The decrease in other assets is due, in part, to a receipt of tenant improvement allowances.
Net cash used in investing activities includes capital expenditures of $68.8 million, primarily related to investments in the development of capitalized software to support the Company’s products and services and leasehold improvements, $20.3 million of cash principally related to the acquisition of Fixd Repair, partially offset by $25.0 million of proceeds from maturities of marketable debt securities, and $23.6 million of net proceeds received in 2019 related to the December 31, 2018 sale of Felix.
Net cash used in financing activities includes $56.9 million for the repurchase of 7.2 million of ANGI common stock, on a settlement date basis, at an average price of $7.90 per share, $35.3 million for the payment of withholding taxes on behalf of employees for stock-based awards that were net settled, $13.8 million of principal payments on the Term Loan, and an $11.4 million distribution to IAC pursuant to the tax sharing agreement.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Financing Transactions During the Year Ended December 31, 2020

On August 20, 2020, ANGI Group issued $500.0 million of its Senior Notes due August 15, 2028, with interest payable February 15 and August 15 of each year, commencing February 15, 2021. The proceeds from the offering are being used for general corporate purposes, which may include potential future acquisitions and return of capital.

On August 12, 2020, ANGI Group entered into a joinder agreement with the Company, the other subsidiaries of the Company that are party to the credit agreement, and each of the other loan parties to the credit agreement, pursuant to which ANGI Group became the successor borrower under the credit agreement (“ANGI Group Credit Agreement”) and ANGI Homeservices Inc.’s obligations thereunder were terminated. The ANGI Group Credit Agreement governs the ANGI Group Term Loan and ANGI Group Revolving Facility. In addition, on August 12, 2020, the definition of “Permitted Unsecured Ratio Debt” in the credit agreement was amended to remove the requirement that guarantees of certain indebtedness of the borrower be subordinated to the guarantees under the ANGI Group Credit Agreement.
The $250.0 million ANGI Group Revolving Facility expires on November 5, 2023. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Facility. The annual commitment fee on undrawn funds is and is based on ANGI Group’s consolidated net leverage ratio most recently reported and was 35 basis points and 25 basis points at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Borrowings under the Revolving Facility bear interest, at ANGI Group’s option, at either a base rate or LIBOR, in each case plus an applicable margin, which is determined based on ANGI Group’s consolidated net leverage ratio.
Share Repurchase Authorizations and Activity

On March 9, 2020 and February 6, 2019, the Board of Directors of ANGI Homeservices authorized the Company to repurchase up to 20 million and 15 million shares of its common stock, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company repurchased 8.4 million shares, on a trade date basis, of its common stock at an average price of $7.45 per share, or $62.6 million in aggregate. From January 1, 2021 through February 4, 2021, the Company repurchased an additional 0.4 million shares at an average price of $11.85 per share, or $4.9 million in aggregate. The Company had 18.9 million shares remaining in its share repurchase authorization as of February 4, 2021. The Company may purchase shares over an indefinite
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period of time on the open market and in privately negotiated transaction, depending on those factors ANGI management deems relevant at any particular time, without limitation, market conditions, share price and future outlook.
Outstanding Stock-based Awards
The Company may settle equity awards on a gross or a net basis upon factors deemed relevant at the time. In connection with the Combination, previously issued stock appreciation rights related to the common stock of HomeAdvisor (US) were converted into ANGI stock appreciation rights that are settleable, at the Company’s option, on a net basis with ANGI remitting withholding taxes on behalf of the employee or on a gross basis with the Company issuing a sufficient number of Class A shares to cover the withholding taxes. In addition, at IAC’s option, these awards can be settled in either Class A shares of ANGI or shares of IAC common stock. If settled in IAC common stock, ANGI reimburses IAC in either cash or through the issuance of Class A shares to IAC. The Company currently settles all equity awards on a net basis.
Pursuant to the employee matters agreement, in the event of a distribution of ANGI capital stock to IAC stockholders in a transaction intended to qualify as tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Compensation Committee of the IAC Board of Directors has the exclusive authority to determine the treatment of outstanding IAC equity awards. Such authority includes (but is not limited to) the ability to convert all or part of IAC equity awards outstanding immediately prior to the distribution into equity awards denominated in shares of ANGI Class A Common Stock, which ANGI would be obligated to assume and which would be dilutive to ANGI’s stockholders.
The following table summarizes the aggregate intrinsic value of all awards outstanding as of January 29, 2021; assuming these awards were net settled on that date, the withholding taxes that would be paid by the Company on behalf of employees upon exercise or vesting that would be payable (assuming these equity awards are net settled with a 50% tax rate), and the shares that would have been issued are as follows:

Aggregate intrinsic value of awards outstanding
Estimated withholding taxes payable
Estimated shares to be issued
(In thousands)
(Shares in thousands)
ANGI
ANGI stock appreciation rights$92,126 $46,063 3,295
Other ANGI equity awards(a)(b)
162,112 81,056 5,798
Total ANGI outstanding employee stock-based awards$254,238 $127,119 9,093 
_______________
(a)The number of shares ultimately needed to settle these awards and the cash withholding tax obligation may vary significantly as a result of the determination of the fair value of the relevant subsidiary. In addition, the number of shares required to settle these awards will be impacted by movement in the stock price of ANGI.
(b)Includes stock options, RSUs and subsidiary denominated equity.

For a detailed description of employee stock-based awards, see Note 11—Stock-based Compensation to the financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

Capital and Other Expenditures

The Company’s 2021 capital expenditures are expected to be higher than 2020 capital expenditures of $52.5 million by approximately 40% to 45%, due primarily to the development of capitalized software to support products and services. The Company’s liquidity could be negatively affected by a decrease in demand for our products and services due to COVID-19 or other factors. As described in the “COVID-19 Update” section above, to date, the COVID-19 outbreak and measures designed to curb its spread have had an impact on the Company’s business. The longer the global outbreak and measures designed to curb the spread of the virus have adverse impacts on economic conditions generally, the greater the adverse impact is likely to be on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company believes it has ample access to capital to navigate current and coming economic pressures.
The Company’s indebtedness could limit its ability to: (i) obtain additional financing to fund working capital needs, acquisitions, capital expenditures or debt service or other requirements; and (ii) use operating cash flow to make certain acquisitions or investments, in the event a default has occurred or, in certain circumstances, if ANGI Group’s leverage ratio
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exceeds the ratios set forth in the Term Loan. There were no such limitations at December 31, 2020. The Company’s ability to obtain additional financing may also be impacted by any disruptions in the financial markets caused by COVID-19 or otherwise.
The Company believes its existing cash, cash equivalents, marketable debt securities, available borrowings under the Revolving Facility and expected positive cash flows generated from operations will be sufficient to fund its normal operating requirements, including capital expenditures, debt service, the payment of withholding taxes paid on behalf of employees for net-settled stock-based awards, and investing and other commitments, for the foreseeable future.
At December 31, 2020, IAC held all Class B shares of ANGI which represent 84.3% of the economic interest and 98.2% of the voting interest of ANGI. As a result, IAC has the ability to control ANGI’s financing activities, including the issuance of additional debt and equity securities by ANGI or any of its subsidiaries, or the incurrence of other indebtedness generally. While ANGI is expected to have the ability to access debt and equity markets if needed, such transactions may require the approval of IAC due to its control of the majority of the outstanding voting power of ANGI’s capital stock and its representation on the ANGI board of directors. Additional financing may not be available on terms favorable to the Company or at all.

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CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2020
Payments Due by Period
Contractual Obligations(a)
Less Than
1 Year
1–3
Years
3–5
Years
More Than
5 Years
Total
(in thousands)
Long-term debt(b)
$23,656 $267,414 $38,750 $558,125 $887,945 
Operating leases(c)
22,421 42,037 39,187 43,376 147,021 
Purchase obligations(d)
12,916 22 — — 12,938 
Total contractual obligations $58,993 $309,473 $77,937 $601,501 $1,047,904 
______________________________________________
(a)The Company has excluded $5.3 million in unrecognized tax benefits and related interest from the table above as we are unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of the period in which these liabilities might be paid. For additional information on income taxes, see “Note 3—Income Taxes” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(b)Long-term debt at December 31, 2020 consists of $500.0 million of Senior Notes, which bear interest at a fixed rate of 3.875% and $220.0 million of the Term Loan, which bears interest at a variable rate. The Term Loan bore interest at LIBOR plus 2.00%, or 2.16%, at December 31, 2020. The amount of interest ultimately paid on the variable rate debt may differ based on changes in interest rates. For additional information on long-term debt, see “Note 7—Long-term Debt” to the financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(c)The Company leases office space, data center facilities and equipment used in connection with operations under various operating leases, the majority of which contain escalation clauses. Operating lease obligations include legally binding minimum lease payments for leases signed but not yet commenced. The Company is also committed to pay a portion of the related operating expenses under certain lease agreements. These operating expenses are not included in the table above. For additional information on operating leases, see “Note 13—Leases” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(d)The purchase obligations primarily consist of payments for advertising commitments and the Company’s allocable share of a three year cloud computing arrangement between IAC and a third party provider. For additional information on purchase obligations, see “Note 14—Commitments and Contingencies” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
See the commitments section of “Note 14—Commitments and Contingencies” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional information on our off-balance sheet arrangements.
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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
The following disclosure is provided to supplement the descriptions of ANGI Homeservices’ accounting policies contained in “Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to the consolidated financial statements included “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in regard to significant areas of judgment. Management of the Company is required to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions during the preparation of its consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. These estimates, judgments and assumptions impact the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and the related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Because of the size of the financial statement elements to which they relate, some of our accounting policies and estimates have a more significant impact on our financial statements than others. What follows is a discussion of some of our more significant accounting policies and estimates.
Credit Loss and Revenue Reserves
The Company makes judgments as to its ability to collect outstanding receivables and provides reserves when it has determined that all or a portion of the receivable will not be collected. The Company maintains a credit loss reserve to provide for the estimated amount of accounts receivable that will not be collected. The credit loss reserve is based upon a number of factors, including the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history and the specific customer’s ability to pay its obligation to the Company. The term between the Company’s issuance of an invoice and payment due date is not significant. The Company also maintains reserves for potential revenue adjustments. The amounts of these reserves are based primarily upon historical experience. The carrying value of the credit loss and revenue reserves is $27.8 million and $20.3 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The provision for credit losses was $78.2 million and $64.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Business Combinations
Acquisitions, which are generally referred to in GAAP as business combinations, are an important part of the Company’s growth strategy. The Company invested $2.7 million and $20.3 million in acquisitions for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The purchase price of each acquisition is attributed to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values at the date of acquisition, including identifiable intangible assets that either arise from a contractual or legal right or are separable from goodwill.
Management makes two critical determinations at the time of an acquisition, the reporting unit that will benefit from the acquisition and to which goodwill will be assigned and the allocation of the purchase price of the business to the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed based upon their fair values. The reporting unit determination is important beyond the initial allocation of purchase price because future impairment assessments of goodwill, as described below, are performed at the reporting unit level. At October 1, 2020, the Company has two reporting units: North America and Europe. Historically, when the Company’s acquisitions have been complementary to these reporting units the goodwill has been assigned to either the North America or Europe reporting unit.
The allocation of purchase price to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their fair values is complex because of the judgments involved in determining these values. The determination of purchase price and the fair value of monetary assets acquired and liabilities assumed is typically the least complex aspect of the Company’s accounting for business combinations due to management’s experience and the inherently lower level of complexity. Due to the higher degree of complexity associated with the valuation of intangible assets, the Company usually obtains the assistance of outside valuation experts in the allocation of purchase price to the identifiable intangible assets acquired, which can be both definite-lived, such as acquired technology, customer and contractor relationships, or indefinite lived, such as acquired trade names and trademarks. While outside valuation experts may be used, management has ultimate responsibility for the valuation methods, models and inputs used and the resulting purchase price allocation. The excess purchase price over the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets is recorded as goodwill and is assigned to the reporting unit that is expected to benefit from the business combination as of the acquisition date.
Recoverability of Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
The carrying value of goodwill is $891.8 million and $884.0 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Indefinite-lived intangible assets, which consist of the Company’s acquired trade names and trademarks, have a carrying value of $171.9 million and $171.6 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are assessed annually for impairment as of October 1, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit or the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset has declined below its carrying value. In performing its annual goodwill impairment assessment, the Company has the option under GAAP to qualitatively assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value; if the conclusion of the qualitative assessment is that there are no indicators of impairment, the Company does not perform a quantitative test, which would require a valuation of the reporting unit, as of October 1. GAAP provides a not all-inclusive set of examples of macroeconomic, industry, market and company specific factors for entities to consider in performing the qualitative assessment described above; management considers the factors it deems relevant in making its more likely than not assessments. While the Company also has the option under GAAP to qualitatively assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair values of its indefinite-lived intangible assets are less than their carrying values, the Company’s policy is to quantitatively determine the fair value of each of its indefinite-lived intangible assets annually as of October 1, in part, because the level of effort required to perform the quantitative and qualitative assessments is essentially equivalent.
If the conclusion of our qualitative assessment is that there are indicators of impairment and a quantitative test is required, the annual or interim quantitative test of the recovery of goodwill involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of the Company’s reporting unit that is being tested to its carrying value. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill of the reporting unit is not impaired. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, a goodwill impairment equal to the excess is recorded.

The Company’s annual assessment of the recovery of goodwill begins with management’s reassessment of its operating segments and reporting units. A reporting unit is an operating segment or one level below an operating segment, which is referred to as a component. This reassessment of reporting units is also made each time the Company changes its operating segments. If the goodwill of a reporting unit is allocated to newly formed reporting units, the allocation is usually made to each reporting unit based upon their relative fair values.

For the Company’s annual goodwill test at October 1, 2020, a qualitative assessment of the North America and Europe reporting units’ goodwill was performed and the Company concluded it was more likely than not that the fair value of these reporting units was in excess of their respective carrying values. In the aggregate, ANGI Homeservices’ October 1, 2020 market capitalization of $5.5 billion exceeded its carrying value by approximately $4.3 billion. The primary factor that the Company considered in its qualitative assessment for its Europe reporting unit were valuations performed during 2020 that indicated a fair value in excess of the carrying value. The fair value based on the valuation that was most proximate to, but not as of, October 1, 2020 exceeded the carrying value of the Europe reporting unit by $131.4 million. The primary factor that the Company considered in its qualitative assessment for its North America reporting unit was the significant excess of the estimated fair value of the North America reporting unit over its carrying value. The fair value of the North America reporting unit was estimated by subtracting the fair value of the Europe reporting unit, based on the valuation described above, from the October 1, 2020 market capitalization of the Company; the estimated fair value of the North America reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by approximately $4.1 billion.
The fair value of the Company’s Europe reporting unit is determined using both an income approach based on discounted cash flows (“DCF”) and a market approach when it tests goodwill for impairment, either on an interim basis or annual basis as of October 1 each year. Determining fair value using a DCF analysis requires the exercise of significant judgment with respect to several items, including the amount and timing of expected future cash flows and appropriate discount rates. The expected cash flows used in the DCF analyses are based on the Company’s most recent forecast and budget and, for years beyond the budget, the Company’s estimates, which are based, in part, on forecasted growth rates. The discount rates used in the DCF analyses are intended to reflect the risks inherent in the expected future cash flows of the respective reporting units. Assumptions used in the DCF analyses, including the discount rate, are assessed based on the reporting units' current results and forecasted future performance, as well as macroeconomic and industry specific factors. The discount rate used in determining the fair value of the Company’s Europe reporting unit was 15% in both 2020 and 2019. Determining fair value using a market approach considers multiples of financial metrics based on both acquisitions and trading multiples of a selected peer group of companies. From the comparable companies, a representative market multiple is determined which is applied to financial metrics to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit. To determine a peer group of companies for our respective reporting units, we considered companies relevant in terms of consumer use, monetization model, margin and growth characteristics, and brand strength operating in their respective sectors.
The Company determines the fair value of indefinite-lived intangible assets using an avoided royalty DCF valuation analysis. Significant judgments inherent in this analysis include the selection of appropriate royalty and discount rates and estimating the amount and timing of expected future cash flows. The discount rates used in the DCF analyses are intended to reflect the risks inherent in the expected future cash flows generated by the respective intangible assets. The royalty rates used
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in the DCF analyses are based upon an estimate of the royalty rates that a market participant would pay to license the Company’s trade names and trademarks. The future cash flows are based on the Company's most recent forecast and budget and, for years beyond the budget, the Company’s estimates, which are based, in part, on forecasted growth rates. Assumptions used in the avoided royalty DCF analyses, including the discount rate and royalty rate, are assessed annually based on the actual and projected cash flows related to the asset, as well as macroeconomic and industry specific factors. The discount rates used in the Company’s annual indefinite-lived impairment assessment ranged from 11.5% to 15.0% in 2020 and 11.5% to 27.5% in 2019, and the royalty rates used ranged from 2.0% to 5.5% in 2020 and 1.5% to 5.5% in 2019.
The 2020 and 2019 annual assessments of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets identified no impairments.
Recoverability and Estimated Useful Lives of Long-Lived Assets
We review the carrying value of all long-lived assets, comprising of leased right-of-use assets (“ROU assets”), capitalized software, leasehold improvements and equipment and definite-lived intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. If the carrying value is deemed not to be recoverable, an impairment loss is recorded equal to the amount by which the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. In addition, the Company reviews the useful lives of its long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these lives may be changed. The carrying value of these long-lived assets is $234.2 million and $284.7 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Income Taxes
The Company is included within IAC’s tax group for purposes of federal and consolidated state income tax return filings. In all periods presented, the income tax provision and/or benefit has been computed for the Company on an as if standalone, separate return basis and payments to and refunds from IAC for the Company’s share of IAC’s consolidated federal and state tax return liabilities/receivables calculated on this basis have been reflected within cash flows from operating activities in the accompanying consolidated statement of cash flows. The tax sharing agreement between the Company and IAC governs the parties’ respective rights, responsibilities and obligations with respect to tax matters, including responsibility for taxes attributable to the Company, entitlement to refunds, allocation of tax attributes and other matters and, therefore, ultimately governs the amount payable to or receivable from IAC with respect to income taxes. Any differences between taxes currently payable to or receivable from IAC under the tax sharing agreement and the current tax provision computed on an if standalone, separate return basis for GAAP are reflected as adjustments to additional paid-in capital in the consolidated statement of shareholders’ equity and financing activities within the consolidated statement of cash flows. The portion of the December 31, 2020 deferred tax assets that will be payable to IAC pursuant to the tax sharing agreement, upon realization, is $88.0 million.

The Company accounts for income taxes under the liability method, and deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying values of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. A valuation allowance is provided if it is determined that it is more likely than not that the deferred tax asset will not be realized. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the balance of the Company’s net deferred tax asset is $84.4 million and $69.1 million, respectively.
The Company evaluates and accounts for uncertain tax positions using a two-step approach. Recognition (step one) occurs when the Company concludes that a tax position, based solely on its technical merits, is more-likely-than-not to be sustainable upon examination. Measurement (step two) determines the amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. De-recognition of a tax position that was previously recognized would occur when the Company subsequently determines that a tax position no longer meets the more-likely-than-not threshold of being sustained. This measurement step is inherently difficult and requires subjective estimations of such amounts to determine the probability of various possible outcomes. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company has unrecognized tax benefits, including interest, of $5.3 million and $4.1 million, respectively. We consider many factors when evaluating and estimating our tax positions and unrecognized tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustment and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes. Although management currently believes changes to unrecognized tax benefits from period to period and differences between amounts paid, if any, upon resolution of issues raised in audits and amounts previously provided will not have a material impact on the liquidity, results of operations, or financial condition of the Company, these matters are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of these matters may change in the future.
The ultimate amount of deferred income tax assets realized and the amounts paid for deferred income tax liabilities and unrecognized tax benefits may vary from our estimates due to future changes in income tax law, state income tax apportionment
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or the outcome of any review of our tax returns by the various tax authorities, as well as actual operating results of the Company that vary significantly from anticipated results.
Stock-Based Compensation
The stock-based compensation expense reflected in our statements of operations includes expense related to the Company’s stock options, stock appreciation rights, RSU awards, including those that are linked to the achievement of the Company’s stock price, known as market-based awards (“MSUs”) and those that are linked to the achievement of a performance target, known as performance-based awards (“PSUs”), equity instruments denominated in shares of subsidiaries, and IAC denominated stock options.
The Company recorded stock-based compensation expense of $83.6 million and $68.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Included in stock-based compensation expense in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is $22.2 million and $32.6 million, respectively, related to the modification of previously issued HomeAdvisor equity awards and Angie’s List equity awards, both of which were converted into ANGI Homeservices’ equity awards when the businesses combined on September 29, 2017. These modified awards continue to vest through the first quarter of 2021. Additionally, in connection with the departure of the president and chief operating officer of the Company in December 2020, the Company recognized $14.1 million of expense related to the acceleration of vesting of his unvested stock appreciation rights and RSUs and the extension of the post-termination exercise period for his vested and exercisable stock appreciation rights.
Stock-based compensation at the Company is complex due to our desire to attract, retain, inspire and reward outstanding entrepreneurs and managers at each of our companies, including recently acquired companies, by allowing them to benefit directly from the value they help to create. We accomplish these objectives, in part, by issuing equity awards denominated in the equity of our subsidiaries as well as in ANGI. We further refine this approach by tailoring certain equity awards to the applicable circumstances. For example, we issue certain equity awards for which vesting is linked to the achievement of a performance target such as revenue or profits; these awards are referred to as performance-based awards. In other cases, we link the vesting of equity awards to the achievement of a value target for a subsidiary or ANGI’s stock price, as applicable; these awards are referred to as market-based awards. The nature and variety of these types of equity-based awards creates complexity in our determination of stock-based compensation expense.
In addition, acquisitions are an important part of the Company’s growth strategy. These transactions may result in the modification of equity awards which creates additional complexity and additional stock-based compensation expense. Also, our internal reorganizations can also lead to modifications of equity awards and result in additional complexity and stock-based compensation expense.
Finally, the means by which we settle our equity-based awards also introduces complexity into our financial reporting. We provide a path to liquidity by settling the subsidiary denominated awards in IAC or ANGI shares. In addition, certain former HomeAdvisor (US) awards can be settled in IAC or ANGI awards at IAC’s election. These features increase the complexity of our earnings per share calculations.
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There were no stock options or stock appreciation rights granted by the Company for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 or 2018. The Company estimates the fair value of modified stock appreciation rights and stock options, including equity instruments denominated in shares of subsidiaries, using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the use of highly subjective and complex assumptions, the most significant of which include expected term, expected volatility of the underlying shares, risk-free interest rates and the expected dividend yield. In addition, the recognition of stock-based compensation expense is impacted by our estimated forfeiture rates, which are based, in part, on historical forfeiture rates. For stock appreciation rights and stock options, including equity instruments denominated in shares of subsidiaries, the grant date fair value of the award is recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period of the award. The Company also issues RSUs, PSUs and MSUs. For RSUs, the value of the instrument is measured at the grant date as the fair value of the underlying ANGI Homeservices common stock and expensed as stock-based compensation expense over the vesting term. For PSUs, the value of the instrument is measured at the grant date as the fair value of the underlying ANGI Homeservices common stock and expensed as stock-based compensation over the vesting term when the performance targets are considered probable of being achieved. For MSUs, a lattice model is used to estimate the value of the awards.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements, see “Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to the consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
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Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Interest Rate Risk
The Company’s exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to the Company’s long-term debt, including current maturities.
At December 31, 2020, the principal amount of the Company’s outstanding debt totals $720.0 million, $500.0 million of which is the ANGI Group Senior Notes, which bears interest at a fixed rate, and $220.0 million of which is the ANGI Group Term Loan, which bears interest at a variable rate. If market rates decline, the Company runs the risk that the related required payments of the ANGI Group Senior Notes will exceed those based on market rates. A 100-basis point increase or decrease in the level of interest rates would, respectively, decrease or increase the fair value of the fixed-rate debt by $32.3 million. Such potential increase or decrease in fair value is based on certain simplifying assumptions, including an immediate increase or decrease in the level of interest rates with no other subsequent changes for the remainder of the period. At December 31, 2020, the outstanding balance of the ANGI Group Term Loan of $220.0 million bore interest at LIBOR plus 2.00%, or 2.16%. If LIBOR were to increase or decrease by 100 basis points, then the annual interest expense on the ANGI Group Term Loan would increase or decrease by $2.2 million.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
The Company has operations in certain foreign markets, primarily in various jurisdictions within the European Union and the United Kingdom. The Company has exposure to foreign currency exchange risk related to its foreign subsidiaries that transact business in a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, as foreign currency exchange rates fluctuate, the translation of the statement of operations of the Company’s international businesses into U.S. dollars affects year-over-year comparability of operating results.
In addition, certain of the Company’s U.S. operations have customers in international markets. International revenue, which is measured based upon where the customer is located, accounted for 6%, 7%, and 7% for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The company is also exposed to foreign currency transaction gains and losses to the extent it or its subsidiaries conduct transactions in and/or have assets and/or liabilities that are denominated in a currency other than the entity’s functional currency. The Company recorded foreign exchange gains and (losses) of $(0.1) million, $0.6 million, and $(0.2) million for the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The Company’s exposure to foreign currency exchange gains or losses have not been material to the Company, therefore, the Company has not hedged any foreign currency exposures. Any growth and expansion of our international operations increases our exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Significant foreign exchange rate fluctuations, in the case of one currency or collectively with other currencies, could have a significant impact on our future results of operations.
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Item 8.    Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of ANGI Homeservices Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of ANGI Homeservices Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive operations, shareholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 16, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
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Stock-Based Compensation
Description of
the Matter
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded stock-based compensation expense of $83.6 million. As discussed in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company issues various types of equity awards, including stock options, restricted stock units, performance-based stock units, market-based awards and equity instruments denominated in the shares of certain subsidiaries.

Auditing the Company’s accounting for stock-based compensation required complex auditor judgment due to the number and the variety of the types of equity awards, the prevalence of modifications, the subjectivity of assumptions used to value stock-based awards, the use of market-based vesting conditions and the existence of awards denominated in the shares of certain subsidiaries.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s controls over stock-based compensation. For example, we tested controls over the Company’s process to assess the completeness of its share-based awards and for measuring and recording stock-based compensation, including management’s review of the underlying calculations, the significant assumptions used in valuing certain awards and related valuation reports prepared by its specialists.

To test stock-based compensation expense, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, assessing the completeness of the awards granted and evaluating the methodologies used to estimate the fair value of the awards granted and the significant assumptions described above. Our procedures also included, evaluating the key terms and conditions of awards granted to assess the accounting treatment for a sample of awards, testing the clerical accuracy of the calculation of the expense recorded and assessing the Company’s accounting for award modifications. Additionally, for certain awards issued by the Company, we involved our internal valuation specialists to assess the valuation methodologies and assumptions used in estimating the fair value of the awards.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2017.

New York, New York
February 16, 2021

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ANGI HOMESERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
December 31,
20202019
(In thousands, except par value amounts)
ASSETS
Cash and cash equivalents $812,705 $390,565 
Marketable debt securities49,995 — 
Accounts receivable, net of reserves of $27,839 and $20,293, respectively
43,148 41,669 
Other current assets71,958 67,759 
Total current assets 977,806 499,993 
Capitalized software, leasehold improvements and equipment, net of amortization and depreciation108,842 103,361 
Goodwill 891,797 883,960 
Intangible assets, net of amortization209,717 251,725 
Other non-current assets 180,020 182,572 
TOTAL ASSETS $2,368,182 $1,921,611 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
LIABILITIES:
Current portion of long-term debt$ $13,750 
Accounts payable 30,805 25,987 
Deferred revenue 54,654 58,220 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities 148,219 116,997 
Total current liabilities 233,678 214,954 
Long-term debt, net712,277 231,946 
Deferred income taxes 1,296 3,441 
Other long-term liabilities 111,710 121,055 
Redeemable noncontrolling interests 26,364 26,663 
Commitments and contingencies
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
Class A common stock, $0.001 par value; authorized 2,000,000 shares, issued 94,238 and 87,007 shares, respectively, and outstanding 78,333 and 79,681, respectively
94 87 
Class B convertible common stock, $0.001 par value; authorized 1,500,000 shares; 421,862 and 421,570 shares issued and outstanding
422 422 
Class C common stock, $0.001 par value; authorized 1,500,000 shares; no shares issued and outstanding
  
Additional paid-in capital1,379,469 1,357,075 
Retained earnings9,749 16,032 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) 4,637 (1,379)
Treasury stock, 15,905 and 7,326, respectively
(122,081)(57,949)
Total ANGI Homeservices Inc. shareholders’ equity1,272,290 1,314,288 
Noncontrolling interests 10,567 9,264 
Total shareholders’ equity1,282,857 1,323,552 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
$2,368,182 $1,921,611 
The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.
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ANGI HOMESERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(In thousands, except per share data)
Revenue $1,467,925 $1,326,205 $1,132,241 
Operating costs and expenses:
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation shown separately below)173,281 46,493 55,739 
Selling and marketing expense 762,590 733,223 541,469 
General and administrative expense 374,096 348,247 323,462 
Product development expense 68,803 64,200 61,143 
Depreciation